Water Table

FIG. 7.52.8 Spray irrigation of wastewater.

ments using waste woodchips and bark from a papermill operation as a cover for the spray field are proving successful. The bark chips prevent direct bombardment of the soil and thus particle classification. Figure 7.52.8 shows the phenomenon used in a spray irrigation system.

Wastewater treatment facilities should also install a monitoring system to safeguard the groundwater in the area. Test wells located at various depths and locations can measure the increase and the spread of contamination. Usually, measuring one or two of the major contaminants in the waste (sulfate or nitrate) suffices for groundwater analysis. If those parameters do not increase, the waste-water treatment facility can assume that the groundwater is not being contaminated.

An excessively alkaline or acid waste is harmful to the cover crop and hampers operation. High salinity impairs the growth of a cover crop and causes sodium to replace calcium and magnesium by ion exchange in clay soils. This alteration causes soil dispersion and results in poor drainage and aeration in the soil. A maximum salinity of 0.15% can eliminate these problems.

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