Mrc

= vessel liquid volume (gallons)

FIG. 7.40.13 Dead time (tJ as a function of mixing intensity.

Unfortunately, for steep titration curves most of the mixing time constant is lost due to acceleration of the pH measurement. Figure 7.40.14 shows how a 19-minute time constant is reduced to 0.04 minutes for a strong acid and strong base system by translating the points of 63% and 100% of the pH change for an upset to the abscissa. By the translation of the controlled variable from pH to the abscissa of the titration curve, linearization of the pH signal can restore the time constant to its original value.

FIG. 7.40.14 When the titration curve is steep, the mixing time constant is much reduced (from t1 = 19 min to T1e — 0.04 min) due to the acceleration of the pH measurement. Linearization (Figures 7.40.5 and 7.40.6) restores the time constant.
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