Types of Chemicals Used

Table 7.32.1 shows the properties of several common chemicals used in the removal of SS from wastewater.

Hydrolyzable trivalent metallic ions of aluminum and iron salts are established coagulation chemicals. The hydrolysis species of Al3+ or Fe3+ destabilize colloidal pol lutants and render them amenable to flocculation (particle growth), which enhances settleability. If excessive amounts of these metallic ions are used, the gelatinous floc precipitated can enmesh some small pollutant particles, allowing them to be removed by settling. Both Al3+ and Fe3+ are effective phosphorus precipitating chemicals.

Alum can also break oil emulsions. Thus, alum treatment converts the colloidal emulsion to a suspension amenable to clarification by dissolved-air flotation.

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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