Twostage Centrifugation

Studies have shown mathematically and experimentally that multiple-centrifuge units operate better in parallel than in series in optimizing recovery and cake dryness when only one type of centrifuge or a single step of clarification is needed (Murkes 1969). However, two-stage centrifuga-tion in series is beneficial under other circumstances. For example, an aerobic digested sewage sludge at 21/2% concentration consisting of one part primary solids to three parts secondary biological solids is difficult to clarify and dewater in a conveyor centrifuge without appreciable polymer addition. Table 7.48.3 shows the operating conditions for 90% recovery.

If a conveyor centrifuge operates as a first stage without polymer addition, the recovery is approximately 50% because the coarser particles and some flocculent material are removed. If the effluent is then directed to an imper-forate bowl knifing centrifuge (basket), which readily recovers over 90% of the remaining fine solids without coagulant, this two-stage system operates with no polymer costs at an overall recovery of 97%. The combined cakes are almost as dry as those from a single-stage operation at a lower recovery. With two-stage centrifuging, the second-stage centrifuge represents a capital cost investment that is often covered by the savings on polyelectrolyte in 1 to 2 years.

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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