The environmental impact caused by transportation can be reduced by several means including:

• Choosing an energy-efficient route

• Reducing air pollutant emissions from transportation

• Using the maximum vehicle capacity where appropriate

• Backhauling materials

• Ensuring proper containment of hazardous material

• Choosing routes carefully to reduce potential exposure from spills and explosions

Table 3.5.1 shows transportation efficiencies. Time and cost considerations, as well as convenience and access, determine the best choice for transportation. When selecting a transportation system, designers should also consider infrastructure requirements and their potential impacts.

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