Transport of Sludge in Closed Conduits

Because of the nonNewtonian nature of sludge (Dick and Ewing 1967), environmental engineers cannot usually ap-

NEWTONIAN FLUID- (I) (WATER, MOST OILS, SALT SOLUTIONS)

12) PSEUDOPLASTIC (SHEAR THINNING) (PAPER PULP, CATSUP)

(3) DILATANT (SHEAR THICKENING) (STARCH,QUICK SAND)

(CHEWING GUM, TAR, SLUDGE)

(5) THIXOTROPIC (ASPHALTS, LARD,

SILICA GEL)

SHEAR RATE (VELOCITY GRADIENT)

FIG. 7.19.1 Shear diagram of Newtonian and nonNewtonian fluids.

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