Theory and Mechanisms

Aerobic digestion is a process in which microorganisms obtain energy by endogenous or auto-oxidation of their cellular protoplasm. The biologically degradable constituents of cellular material are slowly oxidized to carbon dioxide, water, and ammonia, with ammonia being further converted to nitrates during the process.

The mechanism by which wastewater sludges is aero-bically stabilized depends on the type of sludge being treated. For primary sludge, aerobic digestion follows a series of steps similar to anaerobic digestion. The suspended organic material must be enzymically converted to soluble constituents that can be degraded by the microbes for energy and nutrient supply. A simplified summary of the aerobic conversion of organic material into cellular material plus carbon dioxide and water is shown in Figure 7.44.1 and the following equation:

CxHyOz + NH

(bacterial cell)

C5H7NO2 + CO2 +H2O(cell synthesis) 7.44(1)

The aerobic stabilization of biological sludges, generated from wastewater treatment, is the basis for modifications in the activated-sludge process known as total oxidation and extended aeration. In many treatment plants, separate aerobic digestors stabilize mixtures of excess activated and primary sludge. The major objective of aerobic digestion is to produce a biologically stable end product suitable for disposal or subsequent treatment in a variety of processes. Aerobic digestion is generally more suited to the treatment of excess biological sludge than to primary sludge.

Primary sludge settles from raw waste prior to biological treatment. Secondary, biological sludge consists primarily of flocculated microorganisms and suspended organic material trapped or biosorbed to the floc. Secondary sludge is either excess activated sludge or trickling-filter humus. The mechanism of microbial degradation is different for various discrete mixtures of sludge. The degree

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