Sulfate removal may be required to meet recommended limits for drinking water, which suggests a maximum concentration of 250 mg/l for sulfates and 500 mg/l for total solids (U.S. Public Health Service 1963). Sulfate may be removed at the source for reuse or to prevent downstream biological reduction that can produce odors.

The choice of a sulfate removal system depends on the initial sulfate ion content and the final quality of water desired. Alternative means of removal are ion exchange, evaporation and crystallization, reverse osmosis and bacterial reduction.

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