Strong Base 10 Ii 12 13 14

-100,000

1,000,000

10,000,000

-100,000

1,000,000

10,000,000

GRAPH OF REAGENT DEMAN0. REAGENT ADDITION UNITS ARE 10"* M0LS/LITER.

FIG. 7.7.3 The logarithmic nature of pH.

10,000,000

GRAPH OF REAGENT DEMAN0. REAGENT ADDITION UNITS ARE 10"* M0LS/LITER.

FIG. 7.7.3 The logarithmic nature of pH.

extremely sensitive to pH fluctuations. Genetically engineered bacteria tend to be weak and need tight pH control. Thus, pH is critical to the cell growth rate, enzyme reactions, and the extraction of intercellular products. The sensitivity of cells to pH has even wider significance in that any food, drink, or drug ingested or injected and any waste discharged to the environment must have pH specifications to prevent damage to living matter and ecological systems. Stricter environmental regulations have increased the number and importance of pH measurements.

Some environmental regulations have instantaneous limits on pH. An excursion outside the acceptable range for a fraction of a second can be a recordable violation. The pH measurement system must be designed to prevent violations from spurious readings due to installation effects. For most discharges, the acceptable range lies between 6 and 9 pH.

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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