SS and Sludge Density Sensors

Figure 7.9.1 shows a probe-type SS detector widely used in biological sludge applications. The probe contains a reciprocating piston. This piston expels a sample (every 15 to 40 sec) during its forward stroke while wiping clean the optical glass of its internal measurement chamber, and pulls in a fresh sample during its return stroke. This device measures the total attenuation of light, which in biological sludge applications is mostly due to SS. Due to its self-cleaning capabilities, cleaning and maintenance are minimal.

This unit is available with a 4- to 20-mA transmitter output that is updated every 15 to 40 sec and has a full-scale inaccuracy of 5% over SS ranges between 0 to 0.1% and 0 to 10%.

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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