Sensor Locations

The location of the measuring electrodes also deserves serious consideration. The general guidelines are that the locations should be responsive and the information supplied by them should be timely. Submersible or recirculation pipeline insertion type electrode assemblies are preferred

FIG. 7.40.15 Flow patterns in stirred tanks. A. Recommended flow path. B. Undesirable flow path.

when the measurement is used as an input to a control system. This preference is not always possible because of physical constraints. If flowthrough assemblies have to be used, the sampling time, i.e., the time required physically to transport the sample from the process to the electrodes (which is essentially dead time), should be kept to a minimum. Figure 7.40.12 shows a submersible-type assembly on the reaction vessel located as close as possible to the vessel exit. Location within the tank proper increases the measurement noise, principally because of concentration gradients. The requirements of the monitoring electrodes shown on the attenuation vessel are not as severe. Either flowthrough or submersible detectors can be used. The information supplied by these electrodes provides a clean record for any regulatory agencies involved.

DIY Battery Repair

DIY Battery Repair

You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.

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