Secondstage Reaction

The second-stage treatment is a continuation of the al-kali-chlorination process in which the cyanate is destroyed as follows:

The reaction occurs at a controlled pH level, usually between 8 and 9.5, for a reaction time of 30 min or less. Table 7.41.3 shows the retention time relationship to pH requirements for the second-stage reaction.

The retention time requirement should not be confused with the vessel hold time constant; the latter is the ratio of volume divided by flow (V/F). The V/F ratio gives a nominal time constant. To determine the variance about the nominal value, environmental engineers should use a statistical technique to insure that all of the material treated has spent the required amount of time in the reaction vessel.

This second-stage reaction can be treated in a manner similar to the first-stage treatment. The reduction potential is estimated as +0.4 V as follows:

DIY Battery Repair

DIY Battery Repair

You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.

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