Process Description

Trickling filters have been used for wastewater treatment for nearly 100 years. A trickling filter (see Figure 7.23.1) is an attached-growth, biological process that uses an inert medium to attract microorganisms, which form a film on the medium surface. Table 7.23.1 lists the physical properties of trickling filter media.

A rotatory or stationary distribution mechanism distributes wastewater from the top of the filter percolating it through the interstices of the film-covered medium. As the wastewater moves through the filter, the organic matter is adsorbed onto the film and degraded by a mixed population of aerobic microorganisms (see Figure 7.23.2). The oxygen required for organic degradation is supplied by air circulating through the filter induced by natural draft or ventilation.

INFLUENT EFFLUENT

FIG. 7.23.1 Cross section of a stone media trickling filter.

INFLUENT EFFLUENT

FIG. 7.23.1 Cross section of a stone media trickling filter.

End Products

water

FIG. 7.23.2 A schematic representation of the biological film in a trickling filter.

A light-weight, highly-permeable medium with a large specific surface area (e.g., plastic modules) is conducive to microorganism buildup and ensures unhindered movement of wastewater and air. A porous underdrain system at the bottom of the filter collects treated effluent and circulates air. The filter recirculates and mixes a portion of the effluent with the incoming wastewater to reduce its strength and provide uniform hydraulic loading (Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. 1991).

As the film thickness increases, the region of the film near the medium surface can be deprived of organic matter, reducing the adhesive ability of the microorganisms. Therefore, a thick film is more susceptible to the sloughing effects caused by wastewater flow. Furthermore, the inner portion of a thick film can become anaerobic because oxygen may be unavailable. As a result, the release of gases can weaken the film and increase the sloughing effects. Once the thick film is removed, a new film starts to grow on the medium surface, signaling the beginning of a new growth cycle (Characklis and Marshall 1990).

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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