Pretreatment

Many advanced wastewater treatment processes require pretreating the waste to reduce its SS content. This requirement is especially true for the adsorption processes (activated carbon and ion exchange) and of some of the membrane processes (reverse osmosis and electrodialysis).

Prefiltration prior to the carbon or resin columns can eliminate the need for backwashing and reduce the loss by attrition. Occasionally, wastewater treatment facilities can reduce the number of columns because taking a column out of service for backwashing is unnecessary. Reverse osmosis membrane systems reduce membrane fouling by eliminating SS from the feed.

In pretreatment, essentially complete removal of SS is necessary; consequently, deep beds of fine media, e.g., 4 ft

TABLE 7.33.5 FILTRATION APPLICATIONS FOR GRANULAR, MONO-MEDIA, DEEP-BED UNITS
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