Nutrients

Nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur are essential for plant and microorganism growth. They are either applied to the land surface to increase its fertility or discarded with waste streams that contain appreciable amounts of these nutrients. These nutrients, however, can have appreciable concentrations that can leach into the ground and adversely affect the quality of groundwater.

Nitrogen (N) is found in waste, soil, and the atmosphere in various forms such as ammonia, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, and molecular nitrogen. Nitrogen is converted to ammonium (NH 4) by a process called ammonification. Because of its positive charge, ammonium can be held in the soil on cation exchange sites. Ammonium can also be converted temporarily to nitrite (NO—) and then to nitrate (NO—) by aerobic nitrifying organisms through a process called nitrification. Ammonification and nitrification normally occur in the unsaturated zone where microorgan

MEASURED KOC VALUES FOR

TABLE 9.12.5 VALUES OF HENRY'S LAW CONSTANT FOR SELECTED CHEMICALS

Low Volatility

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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