Nitrogen Removal

The nitrogen in municipal wastewater is predominately in the organic and ammonium forms. Based on the amount of degradation prior to reaching the treatment plant, the respective fractions vary. Typically, municipal wastewater contains 60% ammonium nitrogen, 40% organic nitrogen, with negligible concentrations of nitrate or nitrite (Joint Task Force of the Water Environment Federation and ASCE 1991). Untreated domestic wastewater typically contains 20-50 mg/l of total nitrogen (Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. 1991).

Ultimately, all activated-sludge treatment processes realize some degree of net nitrogen removal since nitrogen is required for the synthesis of a new, viable cell mass. Both ammonium and nitrate can be used as the nitrogen source. The degree of net nitrogen removal due to cell growth is a function of the organic loading, sludge age (SRT), and endogenous respiration (Marais and Ekema 1976). Typically, assimilation removes 20-30% of the total influent nitrogen (Van Haandel, Ekama, and Marais 1981). However, all biological nitrogen removal systems use two processes to achieve the required effluent quality: nitrification and denitrification. Nitrogen can also be removed from wastewater by ion exchange.

DIY Battery Repair

DIY Battery Repair

You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.

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