Membrane processes constitute a well-established branch of separation techniques (see Table 3.8.3). They work on continuous flows, are easily automated, and can be adapted to work on several physical parameters such as:

• Molecular size

• Ionic character of compounds

• Hydrophilic or hydrophobic character of components

Microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis differ mainly in the size of the particles that the membrane can separate as follows:

Microfiltration uses membranes having pore diameters of 0.1 to 10 /m for filtering suspended particles, bacteria, or large colloids from solutions. Ultrafiltration uses membranes having pore diameters in the range of 22,000 Â for filtering dissolved macro-molecules, such as proteins from solutions.

DIY Battery Repair

DIY Battery Repair

You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.

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