Level Sensors

Most level sensors used in the wastewater industry do not need to be very accurate; reliable operation, rugged design, and low maintenance are more important. For these reasons, the newer level detector designs (laser, microwave, radar, gamma radiation, and time-domain reflectometry types) are seldom used. Similarly, the designs that use mechanical motion (float, displacer, or tape designs) are used infrequently since the solid-state or force-balance designs are more maintenance free.

On clean water level applications for local level indication, reflex-type level gauges, resistance tapes, and bubbler gauges are used most often. For high- and low-level switches, conductivity, capacitance, vibrational, ultrasonic and thermal level switches are used. For level transmitter applications, d/p and ultrasonic designs are often used.

For dirty or sludge-type level measurement, extended-diaphragm-type or purged d/p sensors, capacitance probes, and ultrasonic detectors are usually used. Lately, electronic load cells have also been used to detect the level on the basis of weight measurement in some larger tanks. For sludge or oil interface detection, ultrasonic, optical, vibra-tional, thermal, and microwave level switches work well. Table 7.6.3 provides an overall summary of the features and capabilities of all level measuring devices.

DIY Battery Repair

DIY Battery Repair

You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.

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