Continuous process monitors (CPMs) and continuous emission monitors (CEMs) track the performance of incinerators so that when combustion upsets or high emissions of one or more pollutants occur, timely corrective measures can be implemented (see Section 5.15). These monitors are usually connected to alarms that warn plant operators of any combustion, emission, or other operating condition that requires attention. Table 10.9.7 lists the typical instrumentation on continuous-feed incinerators for closed-loop control of the temperature and draft controllers (Shah 1974).

State-of-the-art CPMs and CEMs measure nine operating and emission factors: furnace and flue gas temperatures, steam pressure and flow, oxygen, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and opacity (a crude measure of particulates). Continuous monitoring of hydrogen chloride is possible and may soon be a state-of-the-art requirement. By monitoring parameters that indicate combustion efficiency (carbon monoxide, oxygen, and furnace temperature), plant operators also obtain indications of levels of incomplete combustion. Operators must perform frequent maintenance, including periodic calibration, on continuous monitors to ensure their accuracy.

Adapted from Municipal Waste Disposal in the 1990s by Béla G. Liptâk (Chilton, 1991).

DIY Battery Repair

DIY Battery Repair

You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.

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