Inline Or In Situ Analysis

In inline or in situ systems, the sample is not transported from the sampling point to the analyzer because the analyzer is at the sampling point. Probe-type analyzers have been used for a long time. One of the newer probes is the fiber-optic probe (FOP), which uses fiber-optic waveguides to return process-modified light from the probe to the spectrum analyzer usually located in a control room (see Figure 3.12.1). No transfer time or sample waste occurs because the measurement is made on the moving process material.

Another advantage of inline analyzers is that they can be multiplexed; that is, installed at many points in the process. The analyzer's controller oversees the frequency of analysis at each point and directs switching between them.

However, inline systems usually use a window through which light is transmitted and reflected, and this window can cause measurement errors. Process liquids can make the window dirty and cause measurement errors. In addition, the extreme temperatures and safety considerations at the sampling point may not allow for installation of the sensitive electronics that inline systems generally require.

DIY Battery Repair

DIY Battery Repair

You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.

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