Info

States

• combustibles

• contaminated soils

Class A, B, C Low-Level Radioactive Waste

Regulated by NRC

or States

Low-Level Radioactive Waste

Greater Than Class C Waste

Regulated by NRC

• solidified liquids

• filters and resins

• clothing/paper

• animal carcasses

• solidified liquids

• filters and resins

• clothing/paper

• scintillation vials

• animal carcasses

• reactor components

• sealed sources

• decontamination fluids

• combustibles

• contaminated soils

Produced by

• nuclear reactors

• research institutions

• government

• universities

Produced by

• nuclear reactors

• research institutions

• government

• universities

Produced by

• nuclear reactors

• research institutions

• government

• universities

Produced by

• nuclear reactors

• medical institutions

Greater Than Class C Waste

Regulated by NRC

• reactor components

• sealed sources

• decontamination fluids

Produced by

• nuclear reactors

• medical institutions

Produced by • uranium millers

FIG. 11.26.1 General classifications of radioactive waste.

FIG. 11.26.1 General classifications of radioactive waste.

Produced by • uranium millers

1. Long-lived radionuclide concentrations posing potential hazards that will persist long after such precautions as institutional controls, improved waste forms and deeper disposal have ceased to be effective

2. Shorter-lived radionuclide concentrations for which institutional controls, waste forms, and disposal methods are effective

Low-level radioactive waste is classified as Class A, B, and C waste. An overview of the characteristics of wastes in these classes is shown in Table 11.26.2. 10 CFR §61.54 defines these classes as follows:

1. Class A wastes are usually segregated from other waste classes at the disposal site. The physical form and characteristics must meet the minimum requirements set forth in these regulations (10 CFR §61.56[a]), e.g., contains less than 1% liquid by volume, etc. If Class A waste also meets the stability requirements set forth in 10 CFR §61.56(b), it is not necessary to segregate the waste for disposal.

2. Class B wastes must meet more rigorous waste form requirements to ensure stability after disposal.

3. Class C wastes must meet more rigorous waste form requirements, and also require additional measures at the disposal facility to protect against inadvertent intrusion.

Wastes with form and disposal methods more stringent than Class C are not acceptable for near surface disposal. These wastes must be disposed of in geological repositories.

Classification by specific long- and short-lived ra-dionuclide concentrations is also given in 10 CFR §61.54. The reader is referred to this section for details.

The 10 CFR Part 61 radioactive waste classification is a systematic attempt to control the potential dose to man from disposed waste. System components include site characteristics, site design and operation, institutional controls, waste forms, and intruder barriers. The quantity and type of radionuclides permitted in each class are based on these various disposal components and on radioactive material concentrations expected in the waste and important for disposal. Since low-level radioactive waste typically contains short- and long-lived radionuclides, three time intervals, 100, 300, and 500 yr, are used to set waste classification limits (Table 11.26.3).

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