The lines of constant $ and ^ form a set of orthogonal curves called a flow net. Also,

q meaning that if lines are drawn with constant $ and ^ at intervals and A^, then

Ag Arn

where An is the distance between two potential lines, and Am is the distance between two flow lines. Thus, the equipotential lines and flow lines are not only orthogonal, but they form elementary curvelinear squares. This property is the basis of using a flow net as an approximate graphic method to solve groundwater problems. With a flow net drawn, for example, the rate of flow (Q) can be obtained by where:

Q = K^o number of flow zones number of equipotential zones total head loss in flow system

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