Info

Process

Results, Comments

Cost

Cost

Indicated Application

Cold Lime Process

Reduces bicarbonate, calcium and magnesium; increases pH (>10); residual hardness 35-90 ppm; supersaturated CaCO3 may form unless recarbonated.

High

Low

Municipal-large scale, where bicarbonate hardness exceeds 100-150 ppm, 250 gpm and up.

Acidification and

Partial reduction of alkalinity; avoid

Low

Low

Cooling water systems for scale preven-

Aeration

excess to prevent corrosion; easily automated; use HCl or HNO3 on high-sulfate waters.

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