Hydrate Process

This process forms a solid hydrate (complexion) between water in the feed solution and a secondary refrigerant such as carbon dioxide or propane; this solid phase can be separated from the liquid that contains the salt.

When the saline feed water comes in contact with the evaporating hydrate agent in the hydrate reactor, it forms a slurry of hydrate crystals and concentrated brine. The slurry goes to a wash column where the hydrate crystals are washed. The compressed refrigerant vapor then melts the crystals to form water and liquid refrigerant, of which the latter returns to the hydrate reactor (see Figure 7.37.12).

Hydrates are formed at temperatures above 32°F and require less energy than freezing processes. On the other hand, hydrates are mushy crystals that are difficult to separate from the mother liquor.

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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