Equalization Tanks

Upstream of a stirred neutralization vessel, a lagoon or a holding tank can be very useful because it serves to smooth out upsets in influent pH and flow, thus allowing the use of a simple feedback system rather than a more costly feedforward control system. A lagoon can also be used to store the material that is bypassed around the neutralization process in case of failure, a very important consideration if off-specification effluent causes a plant shutdown. The one thing that a lagoon cannot do is replace a mixed vessel as part of a control system. Any attempt to control the pH of a lagoon by closed-loop feedback control can only result in an effluent pH value on the opposite side of neutrality. The period of oscillation of such pH swings will depend on the dead time of the lagoon, but typically it will be on the order of hours.

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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