Design and Operation

Lagoons are typically earthen constructions equipped with an inlet control device and overflow structures (Mont gomery 1985). Building lagoons involves enclosing a land surface with dikes or excavation (Masschelein 1992). Impermeable liners placed in the bottoms of lagoons minimize drainage (Borchardt et al. 1981). Drying occurs by removal of the supernatant and evaporation. Wastewater treatment facilities often use lagoons as a storage and sludge-thickening step prior to further dewatering and ultimate disposal (Westerhoff et al. 1978).

The volume requirements in lagoon design are a function of both the volume of water being treated as well as the degree of dewatering achieved within the lagoon. Figure 7.51.1 shows information on the volume requirements on the basis of these two parameters. For softening sludges, practical experience in several midwestern cities indicates that 0.45 to 0.65 acre-ft of lagoon volume are required per 1 mgd of water treated per 100 mg hardness (as CaCO3) removed (Faber et al. 1969). This design estimate assumes an average sludge concentration within the lagoon of 50% dry solids.

Lagoons can operate either as continuous fill (permanent lagoons) or fill and dry (dewatering lagoons). However, operating lagoons as a thickening process as opposed to an ultimate disposal method is best (Montgomery 1985).

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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