Countercurrent

Figure 7.36.7 shows the location of the bands where regenerant passes upward, and influent water passes downward. In this operation, the residual band is at the top, and stripping of the band does not occur. Leakage depends on the end point selected. However, the bed must be held in place without mixing so that a clean band exists in the bottom of the bed. This clean band is usually achieved ei-

FIG. 7.36.5 Cation exchange with cocurrent regeneration. (Reprinted, with permission, from Frank McGarvey. Introduction to industrial ion exchange, Sybron Chemicals Inc.)

Volume Treated

FIG. 7.36.6 Exhaustion curves for cation exchange with cocurrent operation—sodium chloride influent. (Reprinted, with permission, from McGarvey.)

Volume Treated

FIG. 7.36.6 Exhaustion curves for cation exchange with cocurrent operation—sodium chloride influent. (Reprinted, with permission, from McGarvey.)

FIG. 7.36.7 Countercurrent operation of a cation-exchange resin. (Reprinted, with permission, from McGarvey.)

Breakthrough Curves

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