Controlling Saltwater Intrusion Of Various Categories

Source or Cause of Intrusion

Control Methods

Seawater in coastal aquifer

Upconing Oil field brine

Defective well casings Surface infiltration Saline water zones in freshwater aquifers

Modification of pumping pattern Artificial recharge Extraction barrier Injection barrier Subsurface barrier Modification of pumping pattern Saline scavenger wells Elimination of surface disposal Injection wells

Plugging of abandoned wells Plugging of faulty wells Elimination of source Relocation and redesign of wells

Source: D.K. Todd, 1980, Groundwater hydrology (John Wiley and Sons).

where d = depth to the initial interface below the bottom of the well. Salt water reaches the well, contaminating the supply, when the rise becomes critical at z = 0.3 to 0.5 d. Thus, the maximum discharge that keeps the rise below the critical limit is obtained when z = 0.5 d is substituted in Equation 9.10(9) as

In reality, brackish water occurs between fresh and salt water. Even with a low rate of pumping, some saline water inevitably reaches the pump. Increasing the distance d and decreasing the rate of pumping Q minimizes the up-coning effect.

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