Closure is the period when wastes are no longer accepted, during which owners or operators of TSD facilities complete treatment, storage, and disposal operations, apply final covers to or cap landfills, and dispose of or decontaminate equipment, structures, and soil.

Following the closure, a 30-yr postclosure period is established for facilities that do not close clean as described below. Postclosure care consists of the following at minimum:

• Groundwater monitoring and reporting

• Maintenance and monitoring of waste containment systems

• Continued site security

Clean closure may be accomplished by removing all contaminants from impoundments and waste piles. At a minimum, owners and operators of surface impoundments and waste piles that wish to close clean must conduct soil analyses and groundwater monitoring to confirm that all wastes have been removed from the unit. The EPA or state agency may establish additional clean closure requirements on a case-by-case basis. A successful demonstration of clean closure eliminates the requirement for postclosure care of the site.

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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