Chemical Oxidation

Air, chlorine, ozone, and other chemical oxidizing agents are used to destroy phenol, which is first converted to hy-droquinone and then to quinone. Additional oxidation destroys the aromatic ring, forming organic acids and eventually carbon dioxide and water (Eisenhauer 1968).

Air is an inexpensive oxidizing agent but reactions are slow. Phenol can be completely decomposed by chlorina-

FIG. 8.2.13 Granular carbon systems for phenol removal

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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