Chemical Bridging of Colloids

Since the early 1950s, environmental engineers have used natural and synthetic polymers to agglomerate or flocculate finely divided, suspended material in water and waste-water treatment. From the beginning, they observed the anomalous behavior of the electric double-layer model. Therefore, they developed the chemical bridging model to explain the action of polymers on colloidal suspension stability.

In its simplest form, the chemical bridging model suggests that a polymer can attach itself to the surface of a colloid at one or more sites, with a significant length of the polymer extending into the bulk solution. Reaction A in Figure 7.34.5 shows this condition. That such action causes destabilization is suggested in reaction B, where two colloids with attached and extended polymers agglomerate when flocculated.

The key aspect of the bridging model is that adsorption of polymers on colloid surfaces involves more than coulombic forces. Postulated interactions include hydrogen bonding, coordinate covalent bonding and linkages, van der Waals forces, and polymer-solvent solubility considerations.

FIG. 7.34.5 Colloidal suspension destabilization with high-molecular-weight organic polymers. A. Destabilization; B. Agglomeration.
Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

Solar Stirling Engine Basics Explained

The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.

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