Batch Chrome Treatment

Figure 7.42.8 shows a batch treatment arrangement in which all steps are accomplished in a single tank with a pH and an ORP controller. The steps of the treatment are sequenced so that the pH setpoint can be changed as needed.

In the first stage, this system adds acid to lower the pH to 2.5 and then adds a reducing agent to lower the ORP to approximately +250 mV. After a few minutes have elapsed (ensuring complete reaction) and a grab sample test for Cr+6 has been made, the addition of a basic reagent in the second stage raises the pH to 8. A settling period then follows, or the batch is pumped to a separate tank or pond for settling.

The most frequently used technique for chrome removal is a two-stage chemical treatment process. In the first stage, adding acid lowers the pH, and then adding the reducing agent converts the chrome from soluble Cr+6 (toxic) to Cr+3 (nontoxic). The second stage neutralizes the waste-water, forming insoluble chromium hydroxide, which can then be removed.

DIY Battery Repair

DIY Battery Repair

You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.

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