Auxiliary Components

Environmental engineers should also consider the auxiliary components of the system, including the following:

1. A separate room or building should be designed for chlorination. Gas chlorinators should be isolated from other equipment units or areas where personnel work. (Hypochlorite feeders need not be isolated.) The chlo-rination room should be heated to 60°F or higher to assure that chlorine remains in vapor form when released from the cylinder. Figure 7.30.11 shows the relationship between the cylinder withdrawal rate and room temperature. In the earlier example, several cylinders connected by a manifold were needed to provide the capacity.

2. The necessity of a booster pump is to inject the chlorine solution into the stream to be treated should be de termined. The pressure of the chlorine solution line at the point of injection should be three times the pressure of the effluent being treated. Figure 7.30.12 shows such an installation.

3. Adequate detention should be determined. This provision is important for effective disinfection. Therefore, the environmental engineer must calculate the waste or water storage available after the point of chlorination. The storage can be in the pipeline after the chlorine injection point although it is normally in a chlorine contact tank sized with regard to pH and temperature effects.

4. Adequate mixing should be provided. This insures that the chlorine solution reaches all parts of the flow.

5. Chlorination in two stages should be provided, particularly for wastewater streams. This type provides better results than a single-stage system.

FIG. 7.30.12 Chlorinator with booster pump.

FIG. 7.30.13 Ozone generators. A, Tube type; B, Plate type. Ozone is generated in an electric discharge field by passing air or oxygen between two electrodes charged with high-voltage alternating current. A dielectric material, usually glass, is placed between the two electrodes to prevent direct discharges.

FIG. 7.30.13 Ozone generators. A, Tube type; B, Plate type. Ozone is generated in an electric discharge field by passing air or oxygen between two electrodes charged with high-voltage alternating current. A dielectric material, usually glass, is placed between the two electrodes to prevent direct discharges.

6. Adequate ventilation must be provided. Chlorine gas is extremely poisonous. Adequate mechanical ventilation of the chlorine room and venting of the chlorinator is mandatory. A gas mask in a case by the door and leak detection chemicals are also beneficial.

7. The remainder of the chlorine should be weighed. For smaller plants, a simple way to keep track of the chlorine liquid in the cylinder is to place it on a platform scale.

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