The desalination of brackish waters is the main commercial use of electrodialysis systems. Units serving a range of users from individual homes to whole communities have been commercialized. The OSW has conducted extensive tests on the electrodialysis of brackish waters at salt concentrations of 10,000 ppm or below.

The EPA evaluated the use of electrodialysis in removing inorganic compounds from sewage effluents and found it potentially attractive. The treatment involves the use of diatomaceous earth filtration, granular carbon adsorption, and electrodialysis.

Other areas in which electrodialysis is used or appears to be promising include the following:

• Demineralizing whey by electrodialysis to produce the desalted whey used in infant formulas

• Desalting wastewater from fishmeal plants to recover protein

• Treating sulfonic acid pickle liquors to permit water recycling

• Recovering pulping chemicals and lignin products in the pulp and paper industry

Electrodialysis systems do not become much less expensive as the size becomes larger. Therefore, they are more likely to be used in small- and moderate-size applications. Advances in polymer science are likely to improve membrane selectivity and performance.

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