Animal to Human Extrapolation

In extrapolating from animal data to potential human toxicity, a number of conversion factors are used to account for the differences between humans and animals. Factors must consider individual differences within a species; account for different sensitivities (Table 11.8.2); and note the variations between the two species, such as differences in weight, surface area, metabolism, and absorption.

Extrapolation from animal species to humans has elements of both science and art. It serves as a best estimate, neither invalid nor absolute truth. Although each step of assessment is laden with controversy, animal testing is the generally accepted approach for predicting human toxic-


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