FIG. 7.18.4 Foam fractionation unit.

creased gas surface area but yields a wetter foam. Decreasing the gas-to-liquid flow rate ratio results in a lower foam volume. Reducing the gas bubble size results in a greater bubble surface area for greater solute removal at lower gas flow rates. Effective removal of surface-active agents with high volume reduction requires a stable foam from which the excess liquid can be drained rapidly. In some cases, the wastewater treatment facility must add a surfactant to the process feed to attain this stable foam. Empirical equations relating process variables and removal efficiencies have been developed.

Equipment geometry affects fractionation unit efficiency. The method of gas dispersion, feed point, foam-discharge point, liquid depth, and vessel shape all affect process efficiency.

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