Agitator Dead Time and Time Constants

The dead times and time constants from mixing in this type of vessel can be estimated by Equations 7.40(6) and 7.40(7). For horizontal vessels and sumps, these equations do not hold, because in horizontal tanks plug flow regions exist, short circuiting occurs, and a significant amount of the residence time shows up as dead time. Holdup and averaging volumes (with inappropriate geometries) are beneficial upstream and downstream of all pH control loops, but their inappropriate geometry can be disastrous when used for tanks where difficult pH control is to take place.

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