Acidic Reagents

Table 7.39.8 outlines the toxic hazard associated with acid reagents. Although five acids are listed as reagents, sulfuric acid, especially the 66°Be (93.2% H2SO4), is by far the most widely used. It is the least expensive in highly concentrated solutions (66°Be), it is noncorrosive (eliminating the need for special construction materials), and efficient in highly concentrated solutions. This last reason can cause problems if waste flows are small because the availability of small reagent delivery equipment is limited and small valves, pumps, or feeders can be plugged by small amounts of scale accumulating in storage equipment.

Hydrochloric and nitric acids are more costly than sul-furic acid and are highly corrosive requiring special construction materials. Carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide, besides being expensive, must be dissolved in wastewater to produce carbonic acid and sulfurous acid.

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