452

Source: Air Pollution Management Association, 1992, Air pollution engineering manual, edited by A.J. Buonicore and W.T. Davis (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold).

Source: Air Pollution Management Association, 1992, Air pollution engineering manual, edited by A.J. Buonicore and W.T. Davis (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold).

gases, are expressed in lb/tn of air-dried pulp. Emissions also arise from black liquor oxidation tower vents.

Kraft pulp mills that began construction or modification after September 24, 1976 are subject to the new source performance standards (NSPS) for particulate matter and TRS emissions. Also, in 1979, the U.S. EPA issued retrofit emission guidelines to control TRS emissions at existing facilities not subject to the NSPS.

Today, combustion controls most major and minor sources of TRS emissions (National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement 1985). Most commonly, existing combustors, such as power boilers and lime kilns, are used as well as specifically dedicated incinerators. The principal oxidation product is sulfur dioxide; a caustic scrubber is often installed after the incinerator to neutralize that gas. Two types of noncondensible gases are produced by the Kraft pulping process: low volume, high concentration (LVHC) and high volume, low concentration (HVLC). The latter can be burnt only in a boiler capable of accepting such large gas volumes without disrupting the unit's efficiency.

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