Source: H. Bouwer, 1978, Groundwater hydrology (McGraw-Hill, Inc.).

1 dh

Source: H. Bouwer, 1978, Groundwater hydrology (McGraw-Hill, Inc.).

porosity (n)—A measure of the amount of pores in the material expressed as the ratio of the volume of voids (Vv) to the total volume (V), n = Vv/V. For sandy soils n = 0.3 to 0.5; for clay n > 0.5.

void ratio (e)—The ratio between Vv and the volume of solids VS, e = Vv/VS; where e is related to n as e = n/(1 - n).

water content (w)—The ratio of the amount of water in weight (WW) to the weight of solids (WS), w = Ww/WS.

degree of saturation (S)—The ratio of the volume of water in the void space (VW) to Vv, S = VW/Vv. S varies between 0 for dry soil and 1 (100%) for saturated soil.

coefficient of compressibility (a)—The ratio of the change in soil sample height (h) or volume (V) to the change in applied pressure (ctv)

1 dh h dav

The a can be expressed as


E = Young's modulus [i = Poisson's ratio B = bulk modulus G = shear modulus

Clay exists in either a dispersed or flocculated structure depending on the arrangement of the clay particles with

Recharge Area

Recharge Area

Impervious Stratum Semipervious Stratum

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