Source: H. Bouwer, 1978, Groundwater hydrology (McGraw-Hill, Inc.).

1 dh

Source: H. Bouwer, 1978, Groundwater hydrology (McGraw-Hill, Inc.).

porosity (n)—A measure of the amount of pores in the material expressed as the ratio of the volume of voids (Vv) to the total volume (V), n = Vv/V. For sandy soils n = 0.3 to 0.5; for clay n > 0.5.

void ratio (e)—The ratio between Vv and the volume of solids VS, e = Vv/VS; where e is related to n as e = n/(1 - n).

water content (w)—The ratio of the amount of water in weight (WW) to the weight of solids (WS), w = Ww/WS.

degree of saturation (S)—The ratio of the volume of water in the void space (VW) to Vv, S = VW/Vv. S varies between 0 for dry soil and 1 (100%) for saturated soil.

coefficient of compressibility (a)—The ratio of the change in soil sample height (h) or volume (V) to the change in applied pressure (ctv)

1 dh h dav

The a can be expressed as


E = Young's modulus [i = Poisson's ratio B = bulk modulus G = shear modulus

Clay exists in either a dispersed or flocculated structure depending on the arrangement of the clay particles with

Recharge Area

Recharge Area

Impervious Stratum Semipervious Stratum

DIY Battery Repair

DIY Battery Repair

You can now recondition your old batteries at home and bring them back to 100 percent of their working condition. This guide will enable you to revive All NiCd batteries regardless of brand and battery volt. It will give you the required information on how to re-energize and revive your NiCd batteries through the RVD process, charging method and charging guidelines.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment