Soil Sampling

Soil samples are usually taken at regular intervals during drilling to be analyzed for chemical composition and tested for physical properties such as particle size distribution, textural classification, and hydraulic conductivity. The samples are generally taken from the bottom of the borehole and at the necessary depth when the sampling device is driven with the aid of a 140-pound hammer. The hammer is connected to the sampling device by drill rods. The number of hammer blows, usually counted...

Table 10132 Sanitary Landfill Design Steps

Determination of solid waste quantities and characteristics a. Selection of landfilling method based on site topography, bedrock, and groundwater b. Specification of design dimensions cell width, length, and depth fill depth liner thickness interim cover thickness and final cover thickness c. Specification of operational features method of cover application, need for imported soil for cover or liner, equipment requirements, and personnel requirements i. Convenience center j. Fencing k. Lighting...

Polishing Lagoon

FIG. 7.52.4 Artificial underground drainage system design. FIG. 7.52.5 Overland technique of spray irrigation. FIG. 7.52.5 Overland technique of spray irrigation. FIG. 7.52.6 Permanent system for spray irrigation of wastewater. FIG. 7.52.6 Permanent system for spray irrigation of wastewater. and sufficiently large to accommodate solid particles in the waste. An efficient nozzle is the 5 8-in Rainburg 1-acre nozzle. Wastewater treatment facilities have sprayed a concentration of as much as 5 SS...

Ultimate Disposal

The ultimate disposal of oil frequently creates a problem. Occasionally, reclaimed oil can be reprocessed in a refinery. In other cases, oils are mixtures that are not favorable for reclamation. In other cases, reclamation is not economical. Some wastewater treatment facilities dispose oil on land, but they must take proper precautions to prevent the oil from contaminating the groundwater. To a limit, soil microorganisms can break down oil and render it inoffensive. Facilities for burning waste...

Level Gauges

FIG. 7.6.22 Schematic diagram showing the clean and cold air output of the repeater repeating the vapor pressure (Pv) in the tank. FIG. 7.6.22 Schematic diagram showing the clean and cold air output of the repeater repeating the vapor pressure (Pv) in the tank. FIG. 7.6.23 Schematic diagram that shows how the temperature compensated, extended-diaphragm-type, chemical seals protect the d p cell from plugging.

Fabric Filters

Fabric filters (also called baghouses) are a state-of-the-art particulate control technology with a consistent 99 removal efficiency over the range of particulate sizes. Figure 10.9.15 shows a schematic diagram of a scrubber followed by a baghouse for particulate control. Particulates as small as 0.1 microns can be captured. The accumulated partic-ulates or fly ash fall into a hopper when the fabric filters are cleaned, and this ash must be disposed of appropriately. Table 10.9.5 lists the...

Selection

The first step in incinerator selection is to record the volume, weight, and classes of waste collected for a period of at least two weeks. The survey should be checked against typical waste-production rates. The maximum daily operation can be estimated as three hours for apartment buildings four hours for schools six hours for commerical buildings, hotels, and other institutions and seven hours per shift for industrial installations. The results of the waste survey help to determine whether a...

Lime Feed

FIG. 7.31.9 Public utility district water reclamation plant at South Lake Tahoe, California. aCarbon dioxide is added to water in the reaction basin after it has passed through the ammonia-stripping column. bThermal disk is a processing unit with a series of hollow disks filled with a heat-transfer medium. The solid, reclaimed lime is cooled by the disks as it passes between them. FIG. 7.31.9 Public utility district water reclamation plant at South Lake Tahoe, California. aCarbon dioxide is...

Flocculant Feed Solution Concentration By Weight

By the types of chemicals used for initiation and the size of the particles developed. Coagulation is the conversion of finely dispersed colloids into small floc with the addition of electrolytes like inorganic acids, bases, and salts. The salts of iron, aluminum, calcium, and magnesium are inorganic electrolytes. Partial coagulation can also result from naturally occurring processes, such as biological growth, chemical precipitation, and physical mixing. Flocculation is the agglomeration by...

Feed 2 Feed

(a) The effect of the Feed Ratio on Equilibrium Conversion (a) The effect of the Feed Ratio on Equilibrium Conversion (b) The Effect of a Concentration of Inerts on both Gas- and Liquid-Phase Reactions (c) The Effect of Temperature on Equilibrium Conversion (c) The Effect of Temperature on Equilibrium Conversion (d) The Effect of Pressure on Equilibrium Conversion of Gas-Phase Reactions FIG. 3.7.1 How reactor conditions affect equilibrium conversion for reversible reactions.

Distributing Feed Better

Part (a) in Figure 3.10.1 shows the importance of distributing feeds. The reactants enter at the top of a fixed-catalyst bed. Part of the feed short-circuits through the center of the reactor having inadequate time to convert to the product. Conversely, the feed closer to the walls remains in the reactor too long and overreacts creating by-products that become waste. Although the average residence time in the reactor is correct, inadequate feed distribution causes poor conversion and poor...

References

Biological mechanism of acetate uptake mediated by carbohydrate consumption in excess phosphorus removal systems. Water Research 22, no. 5 565. Bargman, R.D., et al. 1971. Nitrogen-phosphate relationships and removals obtained by treatment processes at the Hyperion Treatment Plant. Pergamon Press Ltd. Berber, A., and C.T. Winter. 1984. The influence of extended anaerobic retention time on the performance of phoredox nutrient removal plant. Water Science Technology 17, no....

Disposal Of Screenings

Disposal methods include burial, incineration, digestion, and grinding. Open-area disposal is prohibited. Most smaller plants dispose their screenings by burial. Each day they add a cover of approximately 6 in over buried screenings to prevent fly and odor problems. Large plants often use incinerators to dispose screenings alone or mixed with dewatered sludge. Dewatering the screenings with presses is usually recommended. The heating value of screenings is between 5000 and 8000 Btu per pound of...

Bru

C0 initial concentration, ppm C concentration at time t, ppm The time needed for half of the concentration to react, half-life, can be calculated if k is known with use of the following equation Table 9.12.3 lists the biodegradation rates for many pesticides the biodegradation rates for other organic chemicals are in Dragun (1988b). However, note that the estimate of biodegradation rates of organic chemicals may not be accurate. Biodegradation rates can be affected by many factors such as pH,...

Rotary Kiln

The rotary kiln is more flexible and provides increased heat transfer. The kiln can be heated indirectly, or the heat can be furnished by partially burning the pyrolysis products. The gas flow can be either parallel or countercurrent to the waste flow. The gas and liquid products do not have to escape through thick layers of char as in the batch retort therefore, fewer complex solid-gas reactions occur. The heat cycle is much faster than in the retort, and the gas yield is higher and the liquid...

List Of Abbreviations

The following abbreviations apply to the design of trickling filters E1 Percent BOD removal efficiency through first-stage filter and clarifier E2 Percent BOD removal efficiency through second-stage filter and clarifier W BOD loading, in lb per day, to first-stage filter, not including recycling W1 BOD loading, in lb per day, to second-stage filter, not including recycling Ld Removable BOD at depth D, in mg l L Total removable BOD, in mg l D Depth of filter, in ft K1 Constant Le Unsettled...

Sequencing Batch Reactors

All laboratory studies of the A O process were performed with automatic-batch-fill-drawing (ABFD) apparatus with sequential operations of anaerobic mixing, aeration, and clarification in the same reactor. This concept has been used for full-scale operation and is an SBR. Part d in Figure 7.38.4 shows the sequence of operations in an SBR. An SBR can accomplish biological phosphorus removal alone or with nitrification (Manning and Irvine 1985). However, the application of SBRs is limited to low...

Reduction Processes Hexavalent Chrome Removal

Reduction can be illustrated by the reaction in which toxic hexavalent chrome (Cr6+) is reduced to the trivalent form (Cr3+). In the latter, toxicity is reduced by a factor of about 100. The Cr3+ is then precipitated as the hydroxide and removed as a sludge. The following equation gives the half-cell reaction in reduced form This reaction has a reduction potential of roughly 1.33 V with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode. The conversion time of Cr6+ + Cr3+ is pH dependent, as shown in...

Fugitive Industrial Particulate Emissions

This section is concerned with the dust generated in processing operations that is not collected through a primary exhaust or control system. Such emissions normally occur within buildings and are discharged to the atmosphere through forced- or natural-draft ventilation systems. Industrial fugitive emissions contribute more than 50 of the total suspended and inhalable emissions (Cowherd and Kinsey 1986). In addition, these particulates frequently contain toxic or hazardous substances.

Availability Limitations

Distillation is used to separate liquid organic wastes, primarily spent solvents, for full or partial recovery and reuse. Both halogenated and nonhalogenated solvents can be recovered via distillation. Liquids to be separated must have different volatilities. Distillation for recovery is limited by the presence of volatile or thermally reactive suspended solids. If constituents in the input waste stream form an azeotrope (a specific mixture of liquids exhibiting maximum or minimum boiling point...

Proximate Composition

The elements of proximate composition are moisture, ash, volatile matter, and fixed carbon. The moisture content of solid waste is defined as the material lost during one hour at 105 C. Ash is the residue remaining after combustion. Together, moisture and ash represent the noncombustible fraction of the waste. Volatile matter is the material driven off as gas or vapor when waste is subjected to a temperature of approximately 950 C for 7 min but is prevented from burning because oxygen is...

Freeze and Thaw

In climates with long periods of temperatures below freezing, freezing and thawing offers a method of further concentrating coagulant sludge (Krasauskas 1969). Freezing releases the hydration water from the aluminum hydroxide complex producing a volume as small as 6 the original volume. Thawing produces small granular particles like coffee grounds that dry to a brown powder which is easily dewatered and disposed (Krasauskas and Streicher 1969). At least two lagoons are necessary. One lagoon is...

Sampling MSW to Estimate Composition

As in all statistical exercises based on sampling, the acquisition of samples is a critical step in estimating the composition of MSW. The principal considerations in collecting samples are the following Each pound of waste in the waste stream to be characterized must have an equal opportunity to be represented in the final results. The greater the number of samples, the more precise the results. The greater the variation between samples, the more samples must be sorted to achieve a given level...

Sludge Conditioning

Elutriation and chemical addition are the two sludge conditioning alternatives. Conditioning is an intermediate process between primary and secondary anaerobic digesters. It also improves dewatering of digested sludge. Iron, aluminum salts, and lime are the most common chemicals for conditioning. Elutriation is the washing of suspended sludge held in suspension by air or stirring. It reduces alkalinity and makes the sludge more filterable. Single and multitank (countercurrent) elutriation are...

Chemical Sludge Production

An inherent burden with the improved SS removal by chemical treatment is the production of chemical sludge. The thickening and dewatering properties of chemical-sewage sludge are worse than those of the sewage sludge alone because of the presence of hydroxide sludges and the increased amounts of colloidal pollutants. The addition of alum to a basic wastewater containing alkalinity produces a chemical floc. Generally, 1 lb of SS (chemical floc) is produced for each 0.25 to 0.40 lb of aluminum...

Cal3qhc Model

EPA 1992c) is not officially part of the Appendix A models, it is a recommended model for CO emissions in the Guidelines on Air Quality Models (U.S. EPA 1993). The model predicts carbon monoxide concentrations at signalized intersections. In effect, the model determines the increase in emissions and their resultant concentrations during queuing periods at stoplights. A version of the model, referred to as CAL3QHCR, FIG. 5.8.17 Four roadway cross sections treated by...

Sleep Interference

Sleep interference is a category of annoyance that has received much attention and study. Everyone has been wakened or kept from falling to sleep by loud, strange, frightening, or annoying sounds. Being wakened by an alarm clock or clock radio is common. However, one can get used to sounds and sleep through them. Possibly, environmental sounds only disturb sleep when they are unfamiliar. If so, sleep disturbance depends only on the frequency of unusual or novel sounds. Everyday experience also...

Tod

The TOD method is based on quantitative measurement of the oxygen used to burn the impurities in a liquid sample. Thus, it is a direct measure of the oxygen demand of the sample. Measurement is by continuous analysis of the oxygen concentration in the combustion gas effluent (see Figure 7.8.15). The TOD analyzer converts oxidizable components in a liquid sample in its combustion tube into stable oxides by a reaction that disturbs oxygen equilibrium in the carrier gas stream. An oxygen detector...

Municipal Wastewater Flow Reduction

Flow reductions related to municipal wastewater include (1) water conservation (2) reuse of water in homes (3) reduction of infiltration and inflow and (4) reduction in stormwater runoff via best management practices. Water savings of up to 20 to 30 can be accomplished in homes and businesses using flow reduction devices and practicing simple water conservation measures (Qasim 1985). Table 7.4.1 gives examples of home water savings devices and their potential for water use reduction. Table...

Separated And Commingled Waste

Yard waste composting includes leaves, grass clippings, bush clippings, and brush. This waste is usually collected separately in special containers. Yard waste composting is increasing especially since some states, as a part of their waste diversion goals, are banning yard waste from landfills (Glenn 1992). The U.S. EPA (1989) Strom and Finstein (1985) and Richard, Dickson, and Rowland (1990) provide detailed descriptions of yard waste composting. Separated MSW refers to the use of mechanical...

Chow Method

Chow's procedure (1952) combines the approach of Theis and Cooper-Jacob and introduces the function where s is the drawdown at a point. The relation between F(u), W(u), and u is shown in Figure 9.8.6. For one log cycle on a time scale FIG. 9.8.6 Relations between F(u), W(u), and u. (Reprinted from V.T. Chow, 1952, On the determination of transmissivity and storage coefficients from pumping test data, Trans. Am. Geoph. Union 33 397-404.) FIG. 9.8.6 Relations between F(u), W(u), and u. (Reprinted...

Anaerobicoxic Ao Process

Part a in Figure 7.38.4 is a schematic representation of the A O process. The unique feature of this aerobic (oxic) activated-sludge process is an anaerobic (both oxygen- and nitrate-deficient) zone at the influent end of this process. The anaerobic and aerobic zones are each divided into several equally sized compartments. Influent wastewater and return activated sludge (RAS) are fed to the first compartment of the anaerobic zone. Typically, either centrally mounted or submersible mixers...

Magnesium

Magnesium is usually present in water or brine as bicarbonate, sulfate, or chloride. It may also be produced in water solutions, when dolomitic lime is used to neutralize waste acid. With the exception of magnesium hydroxide, magnesium compounds are very soluble. The solubility of magnesium hydroxide is about 8 mg l at ambient water temperatures. However, when precipitated without an excess of hydrogen ion, solubility, including supersaturated mangesium hydroxide, rises to about 20 mg l. If...

Electrical Resistivity ER Methods

In ER methods, environmental engineers measure the resistivity of subsurface materials by injecting an electrical current into the ground through a pair of surface electrodes (current electrodes) and measuring the resulting potential field (voltage) from a second pair of electrodes (potential electrodes) as shown in Figure 9.14.2. Several types of electrode geometries can be used for resistivity measurements including the Wenner, Schlumberger, dipole, and others. The Wenner array is the...

Location

The onsite incinerator should be located close to larger sources of waste and expected waste collection routes. Onsite incinerators are constructed of 12-gauge steel casing with high-temperature (over 1000 F) insulation and high-quality refractory lining. Indoor installations are preferred, but even when the incinerator is situated outdoors, the charging and cleanout operations should be shielded from the weather. Incinerator rooms should be designed for two-hour fire resistance and should...

Qaz

Well Identification Labeled Inside and Outside The Cap Washed Pea Gravel or Coarse Sand Mixture 1 4 in (6.3 mm) Weep Hole At 6 in (152 m) Above Ground Level 3 ft - 5ft (1.0 to 1.5 m) Extend Protective Casing Depth To Below Frost Line 6 in - 1ft (152 to 304 mm) Final Secondary Filter Pack 3 ft - 5 ft (1.0 m to 1.5 m) Bentonite Seal 1 ft - 2 ft (303 mm to 608 mm) Secondary Filter Pack Where Conditons Warrant Extend Primary Filter Pack 20 of Screen Length or 2 ft (608 mm) Above Slotted Well...

Stack Sampling

Generally atmospheric or near-atmospheric 400 to 10,000 ft (120 to 3000 m) per minute 316 or 304 stainless steel for pitot tubes 304 or 316 stainless, quartz, or Incoloy for sample probes Andersen Samplers, Inc. Applied Automation Hartmann & Braun Process Control Systems Div. Bacharach, Inc. Columbia Scientific Industries Corp. Cosa Instruments Gastech, Inc. Mine Safety Appliance Co., Instrument Division Sensidyne, Inc. Gas & Particulate Detection Systems Scientific Glass & Instruments...

Transportation

The environmental impact caused by transportation can be reduced by several means including Choosing an energy-efficient route Reducing air pollutant emissions from transportation Using the maximum vehicle capacity where appropriate Ensuring proper containment of hazardous material Choosing routes carefully to reduce potential exposure from spills and explosions Table 3.5.1 shows transportation efficiencies. Time and cost considerations, as well as convenience and access, determine the best...

Natural Drainage Features

The key to preserving a natural drainage system for urbanizing areas is understanding the predevelopment water balance and designing to minimize interference with that system. The soil and hydrology of the site must be studied so that high-density, highly impervious locations, such as shopping centers and industrial complexes, are located in areas with low infiltration potential. Recharge areas should be preserved as open, undisturbed space in parks and woodlands. Runoff from developed areas...

Academia

University professors have identified a range of research topics in pollution prevention. Under cooperative programs with state agencies, the EPA has sponsored research on product substitutes and innovative waste stream reduction processes. An increasing number of industries are also beginning to support university research. The evolution of the pollution prevention perspective is reflected in academic environmental programs. The progression starts with an industry's initial control efforts of...

Techniques For Impact Prediction

A key technical element in the EIA process is the prediction of impacts (effects) for both the without-project and with-project conditions. Numerous technical approaches can be used. As an example, the principles and guidelines of the Water Resources Council (1983) delineate several approaches which can be used in the EIA process for water resources projects. These approaches include 1. Adoption of forecasts made by other agencies or groups 2. Use of scenarios based on differing assumptions...

Characteristics Of Multiplehearth Systems

The following statements summarize the characteristics of multiple-hearth systems. 1. They generally handle sludges containing up to 75 moisture without auxiliary fuel. 2. They can incinerate or pyrolyze a variety of sludge materials, individually or in combination, including diffi-cult-to-handle materials such as scum, grease, and ground refuse. 3. They can be used (or retrofitted) as a reclamation furnace for chemicals such as lime in combination with sludge or separately. 4. They can operate...

Table 11202 Volumetric Leak Testing Methods

Requires Empty or Full Tank for Test ARCO HTC underground tank detector Certi-Tec testing Pressure measurement by a coil-type manometer to determine product level change in a propane bubbling system Level change measurement by float and light-sensing system Monitoring of pressure changes resulting from product level changes Level change magnification by a J tube manometer Pressure measurement to determine product level change in an air bubbling system Pressurizing of system by a standpipe...

Firststage Reaction

The first-stage reaction equation, assuming a sodium cyanide waste and liquid chlorine oxidizing reagent, is as follows NaCN + 2NaOH + Cl2 NaCNO + 2NaCl + H2O The pH level of the reaction must be around 9 to preclude the formation of toxic gases such as cyanogen chloride (COCl) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). When cyanide is in excess, which occurs when the untreated wastewater leaves the plant, the following reduction potential applies CNO + H2O + 2e CN + 2OH 7.41(15) oxidized reduced This...

Industrial Wastewater

A comparison of five industrial wastes shows that the SS content varies from 0.28 to 400 lb per unit of production (Eckenfelder 1966). The majority (65 to 75 ) of non-polymeric chemical substances are soluble in water at 25 C FIG. 7.47.2 Continuous RDVF. A, Coil filter B, Belt filter. Sizes range to 550 ft2 per unit. Legend a, filter medium (coil or cloth) b, filter drum c, cake discharge d, slurry vat e, agitator f, slurry level g, filter valve h, drying air outlet i, filtrate outlet j, vat...

Bibliography

Anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the ear. J.B. Olishifski and E.R. Harford, eds. Industrial Noise and Hearing Conservation. Chicago National Safety Council. Industrial noise handbook. 1966. 2d ed. Detroit, Mich. American Industrial Hygiene Assn. Liptak, B.G. 1974. Environmental engineers' handbook. Vol. 3, Radnor, Penna. Chilton Book Co. Olishifski, J.B., and E.R. Harford. 1975. Industrial noise and hearing conservation. Chicago National Safety Council. U.S. Public...

Advantages And Limitations

Air sparging is a promising technology which has several advantages. Air sparging can extend the effectiveness of SVE systems to include volatile contaminants from the saturated zone, and the contaminants can be treated onsite without removal or potential public exposure to them. In addition, air sparging can expedite groundwater cleanup. The technology, however, is limited to aquifers with high permeability and contaminants with high volatility. In addition, the technology is relatively new,...

Tank Sizes In Oxygenation Units

The aeration tank is smaller (by up to a factor of three) but needs to be gas tight the clarifier is the same size. GAS VOLUME USED IN OXYGENATION PROCESSES 1 of gas volume in aeration systems OPERATING DO LEVEL IN MIXED LIQUOR 6 to 10 mg l Figure 7.35.2 compares the use of air and oxygen in activated-sludge wastewater treatment. An air-sparged plant treating 1 mgd of wastewater with a BOD level 300 ppm and a BOD removal efficiency of 90 removes about 2250 lb day of BOD. It produces about 1350...

Sources of Contaminants

Contaminants in municipal wastewater are introduced as a result of water usage for domestic, commercial, or institutional purposes water usage for product processing or cooling purposes within industries discharging liquid effluents into municipal sewerage systems and infiltration inflow and or stormwater runoff. Table 7.2.1 shows examples of typical physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of municipal wastewater, along with potential sources. Table 7.2.2 summarizes selected sources...

Wastewater Pretreatment

An advantage of spray irrigation systems is the small degree of pretreatment needed. For most industrial waste, this procedure consists of coarse screening and possible grease recovery. Screening can be achieved on screens with openings of 1 to 2 mm. Fine-mesh screening is not normally warranted since the sprinklers usually have openings of 3 16-in or larger diameter. Grease separation by gravity is normally adequate for removing most floatable solids and reducing the problems caused by...

14

Raw lime kiln dust - venturi and cyclonic spray Prewashed lime kiln dust - venturi, pipeline, and cyclonic spray Black liquor - venturi and cyclonic spray Black liquor - venturi, pipeline, and cyclonic spray Copper sulfate - solivore, and mechanical spray generators Ferrosilicon furnace fume - venturi and cyclonic spray FIG. 5.18.14 Performance curve for scrubbing aerosols. (Adapted from K.T. Semrau, 1960, Correlation of dust scrubber efficiency, J. APCA 10 200.)

Odor Mixtures

An additional problem in odor identification is that ambient odors are generally mixtures of compounds in different concentration levels. A comparison of the perceived intensity of two chemicals presented alone at a concentration and the two chemicals in a mixture at the same concentrations usually shows that the perceived intensity of either chemical in the mixture is lower than it is alone. This response is known as hypoadditivity. On the other hand, the CCS responses show that the perception...

Procedures

Representative samples should be obtained to determine the nature of wastes. If the waste is in liquid form in drums, it should be completely mixed (if this is safe) before sampling, and an aliquot should be taken from each container. Within a group of drums containing similar waste, random sampling of 20 of the drums is sufficient to characterize the wastes. If the sampler is unsure of the drum contents, each must be sampled and analyzed. If the waste source is a manufacturing or waste...

Using a Wiping or Brushing System

This option uses a system of wipers or brushes that cleans off residual product. (This system is somewhat analogous to a car wash except that it washes the interior vessel walls as opposed to the outside of a car.) This system is appropriate for processes where the product hardens on the vessel walls. The wipers or brushes dislodge the material which subsequently falls to the vessel bottom. This system is not appropriate for a viscous material that would adhere to the brushes or wipers and have...

Hearing Aids

As long as the cochlea and the auditory nerve survive, hearing loss can usually be compensated with an electronic hearing aid. Many of these are available. In principle, all are alike a microphone picks up sound, an amplifier provides more energy, and an earpiece directs it to the hearing mechanism. Even if the eardrum and middle ear are damaged, a bone-conduction unit can often carry energy to the cochlea. If the loss in hearing acuity is considerable, speech communication may no longer be...

Current Trends in Decision Making Tools

A recent trend in decision making in environmental studies is the use of computer software. For example, Torno et al. (1988) developed a training manual to evaluate the environmental impacts of large-scale water resources development projects. Enough information is provided to enable the knowledgeable user to evaluate any water body of interest. The training primarily uses a multiobjective, multicriteria decision analysis approach. An interactive computer program simplifies application of the...

Wastewater Characterization Surveys

Environmental engineers use wastewater characterization surveys, also referred to as industrial waste surveys, to establish flows, quality characteristics, and pollutant loadings at an individual industrial plant. They use the results of such surveys in (1) determining the treatment level necessary to meet effluent discharge standards, (2) selecting treatment processes, (3) making the discharge permit application for the facility, (4) establishing pretreatment requirements for the facility...

Filter Media

The ideal medium used in a trickling filter should have the following properties high specific surface area, high void space, light weight, biological inertness, chemical resistance, mechanical durability, and low cost. Table 7.23.2 summarizes the properties of some commercially available media suitable for trickling filter applications. Plastic media are reported to be highly effective for BOD and SS removal over a range of loadings (Harrison and Daigger 1987). Furthermore, lighter and taller...

Particle Size Abrasiveness and Other Physical Characteristics

Figure 10.3.2 shows a representative particle size distribution for MSW based on research by Hilton, Rigo, and Chandler (1992). Environmental engineers generally estimate size distribution by passing samples of MSW over a series of screens, beginning with a fine screen and working up to a coarse screen. As shown in the figure, MSW has no characteristic particle size, and most components of MSW have no characteristic particle size. MSW does not flow, and piles of MSW have a tendency to hold...

Health Considerations

Concerning the possible health effects associated with these methods of sludge disposal, the information to date indicates that the potential hazard of disease transmission by pathogenic organisms originating from sludge disposal on land is not significant. Bacteria normally do not travel distances greater than 100 ft through granular soils, and viruses do not pass through 2 ft of clean sand at moderate liquid application rates during 7 months. The fate of heavy metal pollutants (such as iron,...

Selection And Operation Of Filters

Waste flows have cyclic variations for example, the peak flow of most domestic wastewater sources is about twice the average flow. Equalizing or surge basins are needed as part of the filter system to accommodate these flow variations. When domestic waste is mixed with industrial waste containing metals or inorganic salts such as iron, copper, or aluminium, the filtration characteristics of the secondary effluents (after biological processes) can be enhanced. In such cases, fewer colloidal...

Protection from Exposure

Maximum permissible levels of external and internal radiation (Table 11.23.2) have been set by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) and by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In addition, the practice of keeping exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (NRC 1976) is recommended by these and many other organizations. This means that every activity involving exposure to radiation should be planned to minimize unnecessary exposure to workers and the...

Table 11152 Physical Treatment Data Needs

Absolute Density Bulk Density Size Distribution Friability Solubility (in H2O, organic solvents, oils, etc.) Water Content (or oil content, etc.) Dissolved Solids Boiling Pt Freezing Point Density Separation Pumping & Handling Separation Separation Phase Change Separation, Handling and Storage Bulk Density Total Solids Content Solids Size Distribution Suspended Solids Content Suspended Solids Settling Rate Dissolved Solids Content Free Water Content Oil and Grease Content Viscosity Boiling...

Sample Preservation

Aqueous samples are susceptible to rapid chemical and physical reactions between the sampling time and analysis. Since the time between sampling and analysis could be greater than 24 hours, the following preservation techniques are recommended to avoid sample changes resulting in errors all samples except metals must be refrigerated. Refrigeration of samples to 4 C is common in fieldwork, and helps stabilize samples by reducing biological and chemical activity (EPA 1979). In addition to...

Effluent Polishing

Deep-bed, granular filters are applicable to polishing effluents from physical, chemical, or biological wastewater treatment systems. These filters use coarse-bed media and permit high hydraulic and solids loadings (see Table 7.33.5). The effluent from a typical municipal or industrial activated-sludge plant contains approximately 20 mg l of SS. Effluent polishing by granular filtration can remove another 80 to 90 of this contaminant. Similarly, these filters can remove 50 to 90 of the free oil...

189

In addition to the causes and sources listed, thermal modifications impair 9970 river mi. Taste and odor impairments affect 105,288 acres of lakes and reservoirs, and noxious aquatic plants impair 711,323 acres. Additional causes of pollution in estuaries are ammonia (50 sqmi), oil and grease (36 sqmi), and unknown (109 sqmi). Estimates of impairment are based on the sums of partially and not supporting designated uses in Table 7.2.4 which represent 9.5 of total U.S....

Percent Solids In Applied Sludge

FIG. 7.54.1 Sludge volume reduction at a variable rate during drying, with the greatest volume reduction occurring at a 70 to 60 moisture content. removal, have installed lightweight, front-end loaders and scrapers. To prevent crushing underdrains or disturbing the sand, installations use pavement in strips or fractional areas. In other cases, flotation-type equipment is used directly over the sand. Occasionally, specially designed equipment spans the sludge drying bed and is supported on rails...

Weak Acid Cation Exchange

Weak acid resins also remove both alkalinity and hardness, as illustrated by the following reaction In contrast to the strong acid resin, the weak acid exchanger converts little, if any, of the neutral salts (chlorides and sulfates) to free mineral acidity. Neutralization is not required, although degasification or aeration is practiced. Regeneration of the weak acid resin is more efficient than with strong acid cation exchangers, minimizing acid waste disposal. Combining a salt-regenerated...

040

Strom, 1976, Transport and diffusion of stack effluents, Vol. 1, in Air pollution, 3d ed., edited by Arthur C. Stern, p. 412 (New York Academic Press). Notes aAd Potential temperature difference between 162- and 9-m elevations. bzG Height of planetary boundary layer to gradient wind. Source Gordon H. Strom, 1976, Transport and diffusion of stack effluents, Vol. 1, in Air pollution, 3d ed., edited by Arthur C. Stern, p. 412 (New York Academic Press). Notes aAd Potential...

State Pollution Prevention Programs

State programs are at best a barometer of activity in pollution prevention. Programs vary along with their enabling statutes. Some programs are mature, well-established, and independent. Others consist of little more than a coordinator, who pulls together the pollution prevention aspects from other state environmental programs. Some states delegate their pollution prevention to third-party groups at universities and research centers and provide state funding for their operation. Program...

Table 1151 Categorization Of Priority Pollutants

Chloroform dichlorobromomethane 1,2-dichloroethane 1.1-dichloroethane 1,1,-dichloroethylene 1.2-dichloropropane 1,2-dichloropropylene ethylbenzene methyl bromide methyl chloride methylene chloride 1,1,2,3-tetrachloroethane tetrachloroethylene toluene 1.1.2-trichloroethane trichloroethylene vinyl chloride 2-chlorophenol 2,4-dichlorophenol 2,4-dimethylphenol 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol 2-nitrophenol 4-nitrophenol parachlorometacresol 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene acenaphthene acenaphtylene anthracene benzidine...

Purpose

In 1972 Congress enacted the Noise Control Act (1992, 42 USC 4901-4918) in response to the growing concern of the effects of noise on public health and welfare. Congress recognized that noise had to be adequately controlled, particularly in urban areas that this would best be accomplished at state and local levels and that national uniformity of treatment would best serve this purpose. Consistent with these congressional findings, the purpose of the act is to establish a means for effective...

Open Path Optical Remote Sensing Systems

Table 5.13.1 describes several sensing techniques. Of the techniques listed, the FTIR and UV differential optical absorption spectroscopy (UV-DOAS) are the most widely publicized. They both measure multiple compounds in open areas in near real time. These systems use a high-pressure xenon lamp in the UV-DOAS or a grey-body source in the FTIR to produce a broadband light that is collimated by a telescope into a narrow beam. This beam is then transmitted through the area of contamination to a...

Industrial Sewer Appurtenances

Appurtenances in industrial sewers are shown in Figure 7.10.1 in the preceding section. b. Service connections for shallow sewer b. Service connections for shallow sewer FIG. 7.11.3 Typical terminal cleanouts and house connections. 1 ft 0.3048 m. (Reprinted, with permission, from National Clay Pipe Institute, 1978 Water Pollution Control Federation and American Society of Civil Engineers). FIG. 7.11.3 Typical terminal cleanouts and house connections. 1 ft 0.3048 m. (Reprinted, with permission,...

Table 11171 Examples Of Anthropogenic Compounds And Microorganisms That Can Degrade Them

Acrylonitrile Aliphatic (halogenated) Trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, methyl chloride, methylene chloride Aromatic compounds (nonhalogenated) Benzene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, creosol, phenol Aromatic compounds (halogenated) 1,2- 2,3- 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, trichlorobenzene Pentachlorophenol Polycyclic aromatics (nonhalogenated) Benzo(a)pyrene, naphthalene Benzo(a)anthracene Polycyclic aromatics (halogenated) PCBs 4-Chlorobiphenyl Pesticides Toxaphene Dieldrin DDT Kepone...

Info

(b) Detail of inlet chamber (c) Inlet chamber, section A-A FIG. 7.11.5 A multiple-pipe inverted siphon or sag pipe. y * b ' * b ' * b V * b Ii j 1 b ' Ab y * b '. * b '. * b ' < * 1A_ . . . M . . A ' . i_ . _ -i _LA_I_1 DRAIN HUB Surface and Equipment Drainage y * b ' * b ' * b V * b Ii j 1 b ' Ab y * b '. * b '. * b ' < * 1A_ . . . M . . A ' . i_ . _ -i _LA_I_1 DRAIN HUB Surface and Equipment Drainage used to collect surface drainage and process waste in unit areas where drainage washes...

Ecological Effects

Ecological risk assessment is patterned after human health risk assessment but is more complex. As a first step in the analysis, the ecological stressors are identified then the ecosystem potentially impacted is determined. Ecological stressors can be categorized as chemical (e.g., toxic chemicals released into the atmosphere), physical (e.g., habitat destruction through logging), or biological (e.g., the introduction of an exotic species). The Ecology and Welfare Subcommittee of the U.S. EPA...

Model Options

Due to the range and combinations of physical conditions, dispersion models are often simplified and designed for specialized applications in limited situations. The EPA has designated Appendix A models for use under such specific applications and may require the selection of predetermined options for regulatory application. Some examples of specialized functions include simple screening versus refined modeling, terrain features, surrounding land use, pollutant averaging period, number and type...

Moisture Management

Moisture management is an important part of composting. As stated previously, typically the initial moisture content of the sludge mixture is adjusted to about 60 . During the composting process, water is lost via evaporation. Water loss is driven by diffusion, air exchange, and heat generation. Some water can leach out of the mixture. Water is gained by precipitation (for uncovered systems) and as a product of respiration. In general, a net loss of water occurs. The final mixture has a...

Air Toxics Control in Japan

Japan has taken strong steps to control what are known in the United States as criteria pollutants from both stationary and mobile sources, with the exception of lead. Lead is included in a group of special particulate pollutants. These special particulates include lead and its compounds cadmium and its compounds chlorine and hydrogen chloride fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, and silicon fluoride. The emission standards for these four classes of pollutants are associated with categories of sources...

5 5

TThese relatively high accuracies correspond to well-designed, installed, and operated installations. Under less favorable circumstances, the accuracies would be somewhat lower, between 5 and 10 . vacuum. Suction lift devices are the best means of sample withdrawal. Such devices have to operate near the flow sampled because the lift is limited to about 15 ft (5 m). Submersible positive displacement pumps are commonly used where equipment installation is restricted to locations too high above...

Tall Stacks

If concentration impacts are excessive, constructing a tall stack is one approach to reduce them. A tall stack dilutes ambient ground-level concentrations near the emission source. However, this approach does not reduce emission levels or total pollution loadings in a region it merely provides greater initial dispersion at the source. The EPA regulates stack height under its tall stacks policy to encourage better control technology application. Tall stacks describes stacks that are greater than...

Partial List Of Suppliers

Cole-Parmer Co. Delta F Corp. Electro-Nite Co. Enterra Instrument Technologies Inc. Fischer & Porter Co. Foxboro Co. Great Lakes Instruments Inc. Hays Republic Corp. Honeywell Industrial Controls Horiba Ltd. Ingold Electrodes Inc. Leeds & Northrup Co. Milton Roy Co. MTL (B) Ohmart Corp. Orbisphere Laboratories (Switzerland) Robertshaw Controls Co. Rosemount Analytical, Uniloc Div. Royce Instrument Corp. Teledyne Analytical Instruments Waltron Ltd. Yokogawa Corp....

Downhole Geophysical Surveys

Downhole geophysical surveys provide localized details on soil, rock, or fluid along the length of an existing monitoring well or a borehole. The surveys can also identify permeable zones, such as sand lenses in glacial tills, weathered zones, and fractures or solution cavities in rocks. Several downhole logging techniques are available including nuclear, electromagnetic, and acoustic or seismic as described in Keys and MacCary (1976) and the U.S. EPA desk reference guide on subsurface...

Contingency Plan And Emergency Procedure

A contingency plan must be in effect at each TSDF. The plan must minimize hazards from fires, explosions, or any release of hazardous waste constituents. The plan must be implemented immediately whenever there is a fire, explosion or release that would threaten human health or the environment. Describe personnel actions to implement the plan Describe arrangements with local police, fire, and hospital authorities, as well as contracts with emergency response teams to coordinate emergency...

Odi

FIG. 9.15.3 Typical monitoring well design and construction detail. (Reprinted from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1993, Subsurface characterization and monitoring techniques, a desk reference guide, Vol. 1, USEPA 625 R-93 003a May U.S. EPA.) upgradient of the source and detect or monitor any contaminant plumes emanating from the source. In a remedial investigation, however, the preliminary selection of the location and number of wells needed to delineate and monitor the plume is usually...

Ki

Effective distance of drawdown upgradient, ft m, saturated thickness of aquifer not affected by drainage, ft I hydraulic gradient Dd downgradient influence, ft K hydraulic conductivity, ft day Q drainage coefficient, ft day (a) The conventional subsurface drain receives recharges from the stream as well as the leachate plume resulting in larger collection and treatment requirements. (a) The conventional subsurface drain receives recharges from the stream as well as the leachate plume resulting...

Oxidation And Reduction

In chemical oxidation, the oxidation state of a contaminant is increased by the loss of electrons, while the oxidation state of the reactant is lowered. Conversely, in reduction, the oxidation state of a contaminant is decreased by the addition of electrons. Oxidizing or reducing agents can be added to contaminated water to destroy, detoxify, or convert the contaminants to less hazardous compounds. Many hazardous substances including various organics, sulfites, soluble cyanide- and...

Nutrients

Nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur are essential for plant and microorganism growth. They are either applied to the land surface to increase its fertility or discarded with waste streams that contain appreciable amounts of these nutrients. These nutrients, however, can have appreciable concentrations that can leach into the ground and adversely affect the quality of groundwater. Nitrogen (N) is found in waste, soil, and the atmosphere in various forms such as ammonia, ammonium,...

Table 10131 Siting Limitations Contained In Subtitle D Of The Rcra As Adopted By The

Airports Landfills must be located 10,000 ft from an airport used by turbojet aircraft, 5000 ft from an airport used by piston-type aircraft. Any landfills closer must demonstrate that they do not pose a bird hazard to aircraft. Flood plains Landfills located within the 100-year floodplain must be designed to not restrict flood flow, reduce the temporary water storage capacity of the floodplain, or result in washout of solid waste, which would pose a hazard to human health and the environment....

Unit Management

A unit is a physical grouping of equipment and the unit control functions required to execute a batch. A process unit is a group of mechanical equipment, with each piece performing, somewhat independently, a portion of the chemical process. Examples of process units are filters, batch reactors, heat exchangers, and distillation columns. Control consists of the process states, known as phases, required to perform the unit operations. Examples are charging, heating, cooling, agitation, reacting,...

Pitot Tube Assembly

Procuring representative samples of particulates suspended in gas streams demands that the velocity at the entrance to the sampling probe be equal to the stream velocity at that point. The environmental engineer can equalize the velocities by regulating the rate of sample withdrawal so that the static pressure within the probe is equal to the static pressure in the fluid stream at the point of sampling. A specially designed pitot tube with means for measuring the pertinent pressures is used for...

Specific Provisions

The PPA ( 6602 b , 42 USC 1310 b ) establishes a hierarchy of pollution control methods. The fundamental idea behind the hierarchy is to prevent pollution before it occurs. Pollution which cannot be avoided should be reduced. In turn, that which cannot be reduced should be recycled, then treated. Only after all those methods have been applied should pollution be released into the environment through disposal. This hierarchy is stated as the central policy of the act as follows pollution should...

Commercial Applications

Most commercial applications of absorption for gas control fall into two categories regenerative and nonregenerative systems. For regenerative systems, the solvent leaving the absorber is enriched in pollutant. This mixture is normally separated by distillation. The solvent is then recycled back to the absorber, and the pollutant can be recovered in a concentrated form. Regeneration is possible when the absorber uses a physical solvent or a solvent containing compounds that react reversibly...

Equipment Selection And Process Design

At one time, multiple-hearth furnaces were sized by a series of slide-rule and chart computations. Now a computer routine normally performs sizing. The size of the multiple-heart furnace is determined by the processing rate of the wet feed per square foot of furnace area, i.e., the loading rate equals 7 to 12 lb ft2 hr. Table 7.50.2 lists some standard sizes. Exhaust gases at most installations pass from the incinerator furnaces through refractory-lined flues and enter three-stage,...

Movingbed Filters

Moving-bed filters are also applied to wastewater filtration. The filter involves the intermittent removal of the most heavily clogged portion of the sand filter media from the filtration zone without interrupting the filtration process. As the influent wastewater passes through the face of the sand bed, the entire filter bed is periodically pushed in the opposite direction. The face or clogged portion of the sand bed is then periodically washed into a sludge hopper by a stream of cutter water....

56

Turner, and D.L. Fox, 1984, Fundamentals of air pollution, 2d ed., 426. aIncludes water and power cost, maintenance cost, operating cost, capital, and insurance costs (1984 dollars). Source A.C. Stern, R.W. Boubel, D.B. Turner, and D.L. Fox, 1984, Fundamentals of air pollution, 2d ed., 426. aIncludes water and power cost, maintenance cost, operating cost, capital, and insurance costs (1984 dollars). ment. These cost comparisons, although representative of...

Organic Loading

The basic criterion of design is the organic loading. The organic loading or food to microorganism (F M) ratio is the amount of biodegradable organic material available to an amount of microorganisms per unit of time. This ratio can be expressed more concisely as follows (Microorganism concentration)(Contactor volume) F M Organic loading, lb BOD5 per lb mixed-liquor SS (MLSS) day BOD5 Biological oxygen demand, mg l MLSS Mixed-liquor SS, mg l V Contactor volume, million gal Q Wastewater flow,...

Digester Dimensions And Accessories

Many wastewater treatment facilities use a 3 in 12 (3 ft vertical, 12 ft horizontal) digester bottom slope (14 ). The digester design can be based on a 15-ft minimum side wall height with 2 ft of freeboard. Medium and large waste-water treatment facilities should consider duplicate digestion units. A means for supernatant liquid drawoff should be provided for secondary digesters only if the primary digesters are the high-rate type. The digesters should be equipped with flame arresters and...

System Performance

The electrodialysis system in Figure 7.37.4 is inefficient for several reasons. As the ions migrate outward from the product chamber, the chamber progressively becomes depleted of ions, and its electrical resistance rises rapidly. This resistance determines the lower salinity limit in the product. Increasing the operating temperature decreases resistance and thus improves the system performance. The build-up of solutes at the membrane-solid interface (concentration polarization) also increases...