8411Camber steer Fig 840

When a vehicle's wheels are inclined (cambered) to the vertical, the rolling radius is shorter on one side of the tread than on the other. The tyre then forms part of a cone and tries to rotate about its apex (Fig. 8.40(a and b)). Over a certain angular motion of the wheel, a point on the larger side of the tyre will move further than a point on the smaller side of the tyre and this causes the wheel to deviate from the straight ahead course to produce camber steer. Positive camber will make the wheels turn away from each other (Fig. 8.40(b)), i.e. toe-out, whereas negative camber on each side will make the wheels turn towards each other, i.e. toe-in. This is one of the reasons why the wheel track has to be set to match the design of suspension to counteract the inherent tendency of the wheels to either move away or towards each other.

Slightly inclining both wheels so that they lean towards the centre of turn reduces the angle of turn needed by the steered wheels to negotiate a curved path since the tyres want to follow the natural directional path of the generated cone (Fig. 8.41(a)). Conversely, if the wheels lean outwards from the centre of turn the tyres are compelled to follow a forced path which will result in a greater steering angle and consequently a degree of camber scrub (Fig. 8.41(b)).

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