1011 Commercial vehicle axle beam location

An axle beam suspension must provide two degrees of freedom relative to the chassis which are as follows:

1 Vertical deflection of axle due to static load or dynamic bump and rebound so that both wheels can rise and fall together.

2 Transverse axle twist to permit one wheel to rise while the other one falls at the same time as the vehicle travels over uneven ground.

In addition, the suspension must be able to restrain all other axle movements relative to the chassis and the construction should be such that it is capable of supporting the forces and moments that are imposed between the axle and chassis.

Both vertical axle deflection and transverse axle tilt involve some sort of rotational movement of the restraining and supporting suspension members, be they the springs themselves or separate arm members they must be able to swing about some pivot point.

The two basic methods of providing articulation of suspension members is the pivot pin joint and the ball and socket joint. These joints may either be rigid metal, semi-rigid plastic or flexible rubber, their selection and adoption being determined by the vehicle's operating requirements.

To harness the axle so that it is able to transfer accelerating effort from the wheels to the chassis and vice versa, the suspension must have built-in members which can absorb the following forces and moments;

1 vertical forces caused by vehicle laden weight,

2 longitudinal forces caused by tractive and braking effort,

3 transverse forces caused by centrifugal force, side slopes and lateral winds,

4 rotational torque reactions caused by driving and braking efforts.

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