Replace Toxic Products in your home

Everyday Roots

This book includes home remedies, natural beauty recipes and Diy household product tutorials. Discover over 215 suprising natural home remedies using common ingredients like onion, lemons and apple cider vinegar. EveryDay Roots will help you to make healthy changes in your life. Learn how to treat coughs, headaches and other health conditions with common ingredients like honey and watermelon. When you buy the book you get a 328 page Pdf with a clickable table of contents. Read more here...

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1729Detergents and anticorrosion additives

Detergents are used mainly to remove carbonaceous and gummy deposits from the fuel-injection system. Gum can cause sticking of injector needles, Anti-corrosion additives (perhaps about 5 ppm) are mainly used to protect pipelines in which diesel fuel is transported, but no more than trace proportions are likely to remain by the time it reaches the vehicle. Therefore, if vehicle fuel-system protection is required too, the treatment must be heavier. As in the case of the detergents, the polar heads attach themselves to the metal, but the water repellent tails form an oily coating over the surface to protect it against corrosive attack. In Fig. 17.18, test samples that have been left over a long period in the base fuel are compared with those left in Shell Advanced Diesel.

Preface to First Edition

Petrochemicals in general are compounds and polymers derived directly or indirectly from petroleum and used in the chemical market. Among the major petrochemical products are plastics, synthetic fibers, synthetic rubber, detergents, and nitrogen fertilizers. Many other important chemical industries such as paints, adhesives, aerosols, insecticides, and pharmaceuticals may involve one or more petrochemical products within their manufacturing steps.

Safety and Health Hazards

OSHA has the primary responsibility for protecting worker health. Numerous general regulations apply to open tanks or heated equipment. For example, management must provide a cover, guardrails for platforms or walkways, an open-top edge or guardrail 1050 mm (42 in.) high, and enclosed combustion heaters with corrosion-resistant exhaust ducts. Where flammable solvents are used, special devices such as explosion-resistant equipment and fusible link cover supports are required. Solvent spraying in general must be conducted in an enclosure, to prevent spray discharge into the working area. Spraying in a vapor degreaser should be done only below the solvent vapor zone, to prevent forcing air into the vapor zone. Welding and chlorinated solvent cleaning operations must be located separately so that the solvent vapors are not drawn into welding areas. Exposure of the chlorinated solvent vapors to the high-intensity ultraviolet light radiated by welding can cause solvent decomposition to...

Cleaning Stainless Steels

Dirt deposits on stainless steel, which include accumulated dust and dirt, finger marks, and identification markings, are easily removed (Ref 4). Frequently, warm water with or without detergent is sufficient. Next in order are mild nonscratching abrasive powders such as typical household cleaners. These can be used with warm water, bristle brushes, stainless steel brushes, sponges, or clean cloths. Ordinary carbon steel brushes or steel wool should be avoided as they may leave particles embedded on surfaces which can lead to rusting. For slightly more aggressive cleaning, a small amount of vinegar can be added to the scouring powder. Cleaning should always be followed by rinsing in clean hot water. When water is known to contain mineral solids, which leave water spots, it is good practice to wipe the surfaces completely with dry towels. Some companies use oil impregnated cloths to remove water spots and enhance appearance. Commercial metal cleaners may also be considered, but it is...

Cleaning the Filter Media

It is not cost effective to clean the filter in laboratory-scale filtration. For large-scale filtration, usually cleaning and validation protocols are used. The cleaning process could involve cleaning with detergents or other strong chemicals. It could also involve treating with proteolytic enzymes to break down protein impurities trapped in the filter medium and EDTA to arrest activity of bacterial enzymes. Development of cleaning procedures and validation of filter media is very application specific and requires experienced people to design and implement.

Physicochemical Methods

Residual organic matter may be effectively removed by contact with activated carbon. Granular carbon in an up-flow pressure tank seems to be most efficient, although adding powdered activated carbon to other chemicals prior to filtration can also be effective. Activated carbon is also effective in removing anionic detergents. However, high ABS concentration exhausts the capacity of activated carbon to remove other organic matter, therefore prior treatment to reduce ABS should be applied.

Uses in Drilling Fluids

Surfactants are used in all types of drilling fluids, and for several purposes. They serve as emulsifiers, foamers, defoamers, wetting agents, detergents, lubricants, and corrosion inhibitors. These diverse applications are dealt with in earlier chapters and numerous references indicate the many kinds and varied sources of materials which are available. The drilling process is one of interaction of dissimilar surfaces, and it is reasonable to anticipate further advances in the application of surfactants to making hole and improving productivity. The useful concentration range of surfactants is extremely wide. Because surfactant concentration is higher at the phase interface than in the bulk of the solution, there is a greater lowering of interfacial tension than would be expected from the total surfactant concentration in the liquid. The surfactant concentration in drilling fluids ranges from mere traces, as with some drilling detergents, to over 10 lb bbl (30 kg m3), with ethoxylated...

1712Corrosion inhibitors

These additives are particularly desirable with injection systems since, without them, malfunction will be caused by corrosion debris blocking the fine filters used and the injector nozzles. Corrosion can also cause fuel tanks to leak, even though they are protected internally by a corrosion-resistant coating. Most corrosion inhibitors react with the acids that form in the fuels and some, like the detergents, have polar heads and oleofilic tails, but the heads latch on to the molecules of the metal surfaces, over which their tails form a protective coating.

48 Factors in pump selection

Some liquids can be permanently damaged by subjecting them to high shear in a high speed pump. For example, certain liquid detergents can be broken down into two phases if subject to too much shear. Even though these detergents may exhibit shear thinning characteristics they should be pumped with relatively low speed pumps.

Chemicals From High Molecular Weight nParaffins

High molecular weight n-paraffins are obtained from different petroleum fractions through physical separation processes. Those in the range of C8-C 14 are usually recovered from kerosines having a high ratio of these compounds. Vapor phase adsorption using molecular sieve 5A is used to achieve the separation. The n-paraffins are then desorbed by the action of ammonia. Continuous operation is possible by using two adsorption sieve columns, one bed on stream while the other bed is being desorbed. n-Paraffins could also be separated by forming an adduct with urea. For a paraffinic hydrocarbon to form an adduct under ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure, the compound must contain a long unbranched chain of at least six carbon atoms. Ease of adduct formation and adduct stability increases with increase of chain length.18 Table 6-2 shows some physical properties of C5-C16 n-paraffins. As with shorter-chain n-paraffins, the longer chain compounds are not highly reactive. However,...

Sample Preparation and Protein Solubilization

To break down interpolypept-ide disulfide bonds and to maintain reducing conditions, components such as dithiothreitol, dithioeryth-reitol or -mercaptoethanol are used. The solubility problem can be alleviated to a large extent by the proper use of a combination of chaotropes and detergents in combination. Urea is a common constituent of protein sample preparations, and in its presence care must be taken to avoid heating above 32 C, which causes carbamylation of peptides. Impressive improvements in protein solubilization have been obtained with a denaturing solution containing urea, thiourea and detergents (both nonionic and zwit-terionic). The ideal conditions would combine the highest chaotropic power (i.e. 2molL 1 thiourea and 7-8 mol L_1 urea) with a detergent cocktail sulfonate, Triton X-100).

1281Polyvinyl alcohol

Polyvinyl alcohol is produced by hydrolysis of polyvinyl acetate, since the vinyl alcohol monomer is unstable. The degree of solubility can be controlled by modifying the extent of hydrolysis and the molecular weight of the polymer. Films can be produced which are readily soluble in water of any temperature or soluble in hot water only. Applications include hospital laundry bags and soluble pouches for chemicals and detergents. Most applications require the pouch to be contained in an outer barrier package to prevent moisture from reaching the material prematurely.

The Starting Material

In most cases the desired protein will be soluble in aqueous media. If not, there are both advantages and disadvantages the advantages include the ability to remove all the water-soluble proteins by simple extraction, which is a major separation process in itself. But the disadvantages include the problems of deciding what to do next, and how to separate the many insoluble proteins from each other. The answer is to get them into solution, and often this involves detergents, or other agents that may actually disrupt the natural biological state of the proteins. The natural state is called 'native' protein, whereas the disrupted state is called 'denatured'. It is sometimes possible to 'renature' a protein from the denatured state, and this may be necessary when recombinant expression of otherwise soluble proteins results in an insoluble, denatured product (inclusion bodies).

Other Surface Features of Proteins

An adsorbent that consists of fat-like molecules attached to the insoluble beads is called a hydropho-bic adsorbent, and will attract those proteins that have a larger proportion of hydrophobic side chains on their surface. Hydrophobic interactions are strengthened by inclusion in the solution of high concentrations of certain salts such as sulfates. A typical procedure would be to add up to 1m sodium sulfate to the protein mixture, then run it through a column of hydrophobic adsorbent. Many proteins will not bind these have few hydrophobic side chains. Then the salt concentration is gradually decreased, and proteins successively elute. The most hydrophobic proteins remain even a low salt concentration, and need other solutes such as chaotropic salts (e.g. thiocyanates), nonionic detergents, or high concentrations of glycols to elute them.

Collector Frother Interactions

The time of collision with a bubble, re-orientate quickly, facilitating mineral-bubble attachment. this produces a stable three-phase froth and strong tenacity of mineral-bubble attachment. An alternative explanation is that at the mineral-water interface the alkyl chains of frother and collector molecules are held together by van der Waals forces. Frothers are able to hydrogen-bond with the oxygen atom in the collector molecule. These associations are only formed when a mineral is present. The frother's ability to interact with the collector is thus more significant than its surface activity, which is required to produce a stable froth zone. This also explains why detergents are not suitable frothers. It has moreover often been shown that the collector can affect frothing properties and that the frother can affect mineral hydro-phobicity.

Collection And Pretreatment

To prevent cross contamination, engineers should decontaminate the equipment used for sample collection or pretreatment prior to and after each use. The decontamination should involve a minimum of scraping or brushing to remove any soil or residue from the device, washing with potable or deionized water, washing with detergents or cleaning fluids such as acetone, and pressure cleaning with a high-pressure steam cleaner.

Crossed Immunoelectrophoresis

Crossed IE can also be applied to the study of membrane proteins. For this it is convenient to solubilize them with nonionic detergents, such as Triton X-100, that better preserve the structural and functional properties of these proteins. The detergent does not cancel out the antigenic properties of the membrane proteins, nor does it impede the antigen-antibody reaction. In the characterization of membrane proteins it is important to know whether the proteins studied possess hydrophobic domains that anchor them to the hydrocarbon interior of the bi-layer, or whether they are externally bound to the membrane. Charge-shift immunoelectrophoresis permit the user to easily obtain that information even in complex mixtures. Membrane proteins are solubilized either with Triton X-100 alone or mixed with other detergents, for example, Triton X-100 sodium deoxy-cholate (an anionic detergent) and Triton X-100 cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide (a cationic detergent). Afterwards, these three...

Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution

Roads, driveways, parking lots, vehicle maintenance areas, gas stations, illicit dumping to storm drains Lawns, roads, leaky sanitary sewer lines, sanitary sewer cross-connections, animal waste, septic systems Lawn fertilizer, atmospheric deposition, automobile exhaust, soil erosion, animal waste, detergents Most of the structural BMPs are designed to remove sediments and pollutants that are transported in surface runoff along with sediments (e.g., phosphorus, pathogens, metals). Many of the nonstructural BMPs focus on reducing pesticides, hydrocarbons, commercial and industrial chemicals such as detergents and solvents, pet wastes, and fertilizers. Public education programs, along with appropriate enforcement of pollution control regulations, can be very effective at keeping these pollutants out of urban storm runoff.

Ch3chch2 h2o2 ch3chch2 h2o

Similar to ethylene oxide, the hydration of propylene oxide produces propylene glycol. Propylene oxide also reacts with alcohols, producing polypropylene glycol ethers, which are used to produce polyurethane foams and detergents. Isomerization of propylene oxide produces allyl alcohol, a precursor for glycerol. The 1994 U.S. production of propylene oxide, the 35th highest-volume chemical, was approximately 3.7 billion pounds. Table 8-3 shows the 1992 U.S. propylene oxide capacity of the three firms producing it and the processes used 4

Gasinliquid Dispersions

The influence of surface-active agents on bubbles and foams is summarized in selected passages from Schwartz and Perry, Surface Active Agents, vol. 1, Interscience, New York, 1949 and from Schwartz, Perry, and Berch, Surface Active Agents and Detergents, vol. 2, Interscience, New York, 1958. See also Elenkov, Theor. Found Chem. Eng., 1, 1, 117 (1967) and Rubel, Anti oaming and Defoaming Agents, Noyes Data Corp., Park Ridge, NJ, 1972. One concerned with the measurement of gas-liquid interfacial tension should consult the useful reviews of methods prepared by Harkins in Chap. 9 of Weissberger, Techniques of Organic Chemstry, 2d ed., vol. 1, part 2, Interscience, New York, 1949), Schwartz and coauthors Surface Acttve Agents, vol. 1, Interscience, New York, 1949, pp. 263-271 Surface Active Agents and Detergents, vol. 2, Interscience, New York, 1958, pp. 389-391, 417-418 , and by Adam-son Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, Interscience, New York, 1960 .

Fuel oils lubricating oils and their treatment

Diagram Lube Oil Clarifier

Lubricating oils are a product of the crude oil refining process. The various properties required of the oil are obtained as a result of blending and the introduction of additives. The physical and chemical properties of an oil are changed by additives which may act as oxidation inhibitors, wear reducers, dispersants, detergents, etc. The important lubricant properties will now be examined.

25 Survey of commercial plastics materials

It does, however, have a number of limitations such as a low softening point, susceptibility to oxidation, suceptibility of low-molecular-weight grades to cracking under stress in many environments (particularly oils, detergents, silicones and ethers), wax-like appearance and poor scratch resistance, lack of rigidity and low tensile strength and stiffness. Three main types of polymer are recognised.

Properties of Porcelain Enamels

Porcelain enamel is widely used because of its resistance to household chemicals and foods. Mild alkaline or acid environments are generally involved in household applications. Table 13 presents examples of corrosive environments for which porcelain enamels are widely used for long periods of service. Special enamel compositions are available to resist most acids, except for hydrofluoric or concentrated phosphorics, to temperatures of 230 C (450 F). These compositions also resist alkali concentration to pH 12 at 93 C (200 F). Water detergents bleach

Initial Product Harvest And Concentration

The release of intracellular protein product is achieved through rupture of the cell walls, and release of the protein product to the surrounding medium, through either mechanical or nonmechanical means, or through chemical, physical, or enzymatic lysis Engler, in Cooney and Humphrey (eds.), op. cit., pp. 305-324 Schutte and Kula, in Stephanopoulos (ed.), op. cit., pp. 505-526 . Mechanical methods use pressure, as in the Manton APV-Gaulin French Press, or the Microfluidizer, or mechanical grinding, as in ball mills, the latter being used typically for flocs and usually only for natural products. Nonmechanical means include use of desiccants or solvents, while cell lysis can also be achieved through physical means (osmotic shock, freeze thaw cycles), chemical (detergents, chaotropes) or enzymatic (lysozyme, phages). Chemical lysis, or solubilization of the cell wall, is typically carried out using detergents such as Triton X-100, or the chaotropes urea, and guanidine hydrochloride....

1711Detergent additives

Detergents were introduced initially in the early 1960s, in response to driveability problems arising from the formation of deposits in carburettors. 'Driveability' is a term used mainly for describing the smoothness of the response of the engine to movements of the accelerator pedal. By the late 1960s and early 1970s, the introduction first of positive crankcase ventilation and then exhaust gas recirculation led to the appearance of deposits in all the passages from air filter to inlet valves and even on the valves themselves. Again, the result was poor driveability. Consequently, it became necessary to develop detergents that would be effective not only in the carburettor but also throughout the system. Shell, with its ASD (Additive Super Detergent) fuel, was first in the field, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and was using these second generation detergents in higher concentrations than hitherto. A significant new feature was the use of carrier fluids, mainly mineral oils, or...

Final Purification And Product Formulation

Changes in pH or ionic strength are generally nonspecific in elution performance ionic-strength increases are effective when the protein binding is predominantly electrostatic, as in IEC. Polarity changes are effective when hydrophobic interactions play the primary role in protein binding. By reducing the polarity of the eluting mobile phase, this phase becomes a more thermodynamically favorable environment for the protein than adsorption to the packing support. A chaotropic salt (KSCN, KCNO, KI in range 1-3 M) or denaturing agent (urea, guani-dine HCl 3-4 M) in the buffer can also lead to enhanced desorption. For the most hydrophobic proteins (e.g., membrane proteins) one can use detergents just below their critical micelle concentrations to solu-bilize the proteins and strip them from the packing surface. Spray drying can use up to 50 percent less energy than freeze-drying operations and finds application in the production of enzymes used as industrial catalysts, as additives for...

Medium speed engine system oils

Centrifugal Separators Handbook

Lubricating medium speed trunk piston engines is considered much more of an exact science than lubricating low speed crosshead engine cylinders. Sulphurous byproducts from the combustion of high sulphur fuel are countered by increasing the amount of over-based additive in the formulation to give an oil of higher alkalinity, as measured by TBN. But this is not quite as simple as merely adding alkaline additives. Research is carried out to establish a balanced blend of the many functionally different additives for example, anti-oxidants, anti-wear agents, corrosion inhibitors, detergents, dispersants, anti-foam agents and pour-point depressants.

56 MReal Kirkniemi paper mill Finland

At a cross-flow velocity of 13 m s-1. Fouling control in the cross-rotational membrane unit is achieved by rotors between all membrane stacks thus generating shear directly at the membrane's surface. Membrane cleaning is conducted by a combination of acid and alkaline detergents every 5 days for a duration of 60 minutes. Concentrate from the stacks is combined and sent to the biological treatment plant prior to discharge.

Sources Of Water Pollution

Pollution from petroleum compounds (oil pollution) first came to public attention with the Torrey Canyon disaster in 1967. The huge tanker loaded with crude oil plowed into a reef in the English Channel. Despite British and French attempts to burn the oil, almost all of it leaked out and fouled French and English beaches. Eventually, straw was used to soak up the oil and detergents were applied to disperse the oil (detergents were later found to be harmful to the coastal ecology).

Surface Preparation

Rust or other corrosion products oils, grease, or other lubricants paint or other surface contaminants must be removed before coating deposition is begun. They can be removed by scraping, wire brushing, machining, grit blasting, or chemical action. Care should be taken not to embed scale and the like in the surface when trying to remove it, particularly when using grit blasting. Solvent degreasing has been the most common method for removal of lubricants and body oils, most conveniently with vapor degreasers. Large parts, and parts with attached hardware that may be damaged by vapor degreasing, should be degreased manually using the least hazardous material available. All solvents should be used only in well-ventilated areas, by properly protected personnel who are trained in their use and who follow local regulations for the use, care, and handling of solvents. More recently there has been a trend toward the use of aqueous detergents and alkaline cleaners,...

31 Factory legislation

Poisonous Products Used Engineering

Secondly there was the question of emissions to the atmosphere. The textile industry not only brought into being the factory but also the large scale chemical industry because of its demands for detergents, bleaches and dyestuffs. One of the first large-scale industries was the Leblanc process with its concomitant production of 'saltcake'. In its original form the saltcake process discharged to atmosphere one mol of HCl per mol of saltcake manufactured and it would not, I think, be too much to claim that atmospheric pollution in South Lancashire in those days was one thousand times worse than anything we put up with today. This crying scandal gave birth to the Alkali Works Act to which all later legislation on atmospheric pollution owes its origin. Thus at the beginning of this century and indeed until the beginning of this year legislation to control hazards to the lives and health of work people and to the general public arising from industry were essentially resting on nineteenth...

Precleaning and Surface Preparation

Either solvent or alkaline degreasing is recommended for the cleaning of oily or greasy surfaces. Of the solvent degreasing methods, the vapor condensation of the trichloroethylene-type solvents probably minimizes residual film on the surface. In the absence of vapor degreasing apparatus, immersion in liquid solvents or in detergent solutions is a suitable procedure. Hot alkali detergents are widely used for degreasing. All cleaning solutions must be thoroughly removed before soldering. Residues from hard-water rinses can interfere with soldering. Material compatibility is a prime consideration.

Table 731 Summary Of The Origin And Characteristics Of Selected Industrial Wastewater

High BOD, grease, floor washing, sugars, flour, and detergents Detergents Cornstarch and detergents Evaporator condensate or bottoms when not reused or recovered, syrup from final washes, and wastes from bottling-up process Washing trinitrotoluene (TNT) and guncotton for purification and washing and pickling of cartridges Washing and purification products such as 2,4-D and dichlorodiphenyl trich-loroethane (DDT) Washing, screening, floating rock, and condenser bleedoff from phosphate reduction plant Unit operations from polymer preparation and use and spills and equipment washdowns Chemical reactions of basic elements and spills, cooling waters, washing of products, and boiler blowdowns Leaks, accidental spills, and refining of chemicals

Cleaning Action

Emulsifiable solvent detergents are particularly well suited to the removal of such heavy soils as carbonized grease and oil deposits, and buffing and lapping compound residues. Where parts are very heavily soiled, solvent detergents are frequently used as precleaners before the work is put through the regular alkaline solution. The advantage of solvent precleaning is that heavy surface soil is removed from the alkaline tank, thus prolonging solution life. Precleaning of emulsifiable solvents shortens total cleaning time, and because it allows less frequent dumping of the alkaline tank, it also reduces total cleaning costs.

Inorganic Exchangers

Der') has been a vital component of commercial detergents. Within the last 10-15 years there has been a move away from the phosphate builders traditionally used. The main agencies chosen to replace them have been synthetic zeolites. Currently the world annual production of synthetic zeolites for this purpose is approaching 1 million tonnes. This is largely as zeolite A, but a synthetic gismondine, zeolite MAP, is an alternative. Zeolites can be incorporated into both powder and liquid detergents, and natural zeolites have been used in cheaper powders.


Whenever possible, it is best to use a water-based detergent in the ultrasonic cleaning process. Water is an excellent solvent, nontoxic, nonflammable, and environmentally friendly. However, it can be difficult and expensive to dispose of soiled water. Rinsing and drying can also be difficult without detergents. High surface tension exists in solutions without detergents, thus making rinsing difficult in hard-to-reach areas. Detergents can therefore be added to lower the surface tension and provide the necessary wetting action to loosen the bond of a contaminant to a substrate. As an added bonus, the cavitation energy in a water-based solution is more intense than in an organic solvent.

General Elution

Having bound the desired protein to the affinity column, it must now be eluted. The standard way with simple ligands is to increase the salt concentration, or use a radical shift in buffer pH. This normally interferes with natural bonding between protein and ligand, thereby weakening the affinity constant between the two. But there are many cases in which increasing salt concentration is not appropriate, especially with antibody-antigen interactions. If the adsorption has a high hydrophobic contribution, then increasing salt concentration may increase the strength of binding. In that case elution may be achievable by a very low ionic strength buffer, in combination with a slightly alkaline pH. Nonionic detergents may also assist. With immuno-adsorbents the elution is carried out by partially denaturing the antibody at low (2) or high (10) pH, or by chaotropic (structure-destabilizing) agents such as guanidine hydrochloride or sodium thiocyanate. The antigen is released, but if it is a...


95 of organisms in the area of a spill or leak. Oil coats surface organisms and may also coat benthic or bottom-dwelling organisms. Wave action and currents spread oil horizontally, mixing hydrocarbons with water. Even after external manifestations are gone, oil may still be found in the organisms. Bacteria detoxify poisons in the oil, but they influence the least toxic products first, rendering the remaining oil more poisonous than before.


The most common isotope has atomic weight 30.974. A nonmetallic element of the nitrogen family. Found in certain types of rock. Used in the manufacture of various fertilizers. Also used in cleaning detergents. Commonly employed as a dopant in semiconductor manufacture, and as an alloy constituent in some electrical and electronic components.

Chemical Use Control

Reducing the indiscriminate use and disposal of fertilizers, pesticides, oil and gasoline, and detergents is a frequently overlooked measure for reducing stormwater runoff pollution. Tree spraying, weed control, municipal fertilization of parks and parkways, and homeowner use of pesticides and fertilizers can be controlled by increasing public awareness of the potential hazards to receiving waters. Direct dumping of chemicals and debris into catch basins, inlets, and sewers is a significant problem that can only be addressed through educational programs, ordinances, and enforcement.

Oxo Alcohols Market

The term oxo-alcohols covers a range of higher alcohols, from C3-alcohol to C18 +. Lower alcohols (propanol, butanol, and pentanol) find usage as solvents. In the range C8 to C10 they are used as plasticizers. Higher alcohols (C12+) are required for the manufacture of synthetic detergents. Oxo-alcohols are manufactured by reacting olefins with syngas (50 50 H2 CO) to form aldehydes. The aldehyde is then hydro-genated with high purity hydrogen to produce the oxo-alcohol end product. World production of oxo alcohols is about 8100 kt y, over half of which is produced in two countries alone, the United States and Germany.


The filter devices and materials can be a source of contamination in the filtration process. The source of impurities could be additives, stabilizers, surface modifiers, detergents and monomers in the filter material. Some contaminants occur in small quantities but some detergents can make up as much as 2-3 of the dry weight of the filter. This large amount of detergent helps in efficient filtration, lower pressure requirements and permits autoclaving for sterilization. The additives and monomers can be entrapped within the body of the filter. Sometimes the source of impurities is not from the filtering material but from the housing or support of the filter. This housing material is usually plastic, and the manufacturer tests that the plastic used in containing the filter material is not going to leach out impurities under


The Cl2-Cl8 fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic, and stearic are usually ethoxylated with EO for the production of nonionic detergents and emulsifiers. Lauric acid is the main fatty acid used for producing ethanolamides. Monoethanolamides are used primarily in heavy-duty powder detergents as foam stabilizers and rinse improvers.


Zeolites are microporous crystalline aluminosilicate minerals which occur naturally and may be synthesized easily in the laboratory. An introduction to the structures and properties of zeolites is given in the article by Dyer. Zeolites are used on a large scale as ion exchangers in many fields most notable are their use as 'builders' or water softeners for laundry detergents, and their use in the decontamination of various types of waste streams. Typical applications of zeolites as ion exchangers are given in Table 1. Additionally, the ion exchange capability of zeolites can be used as a tool to modify their catalytic and sorptive properties. Some attention will be paid to structural parameters which influence the ion exchange properties of zeolites in the following paragraphs. Zeolites are used in vast quantities in the detergent industry as a water-softening additive for laundry detergents - up to 30 by weight of most modern washing powders is zeolite. The zeolite is added...

Other Applications

Wet oxidation can render plastics, detergents, insecticides, and other nonbiodegradable materials compatible with conventional sewage treatment processes. When the waste contains both paper and plastic material, these need not be separated because both are decomposed at the same reaction temperature.

Flow Rate

A nominal rating, a range of neutral polymers of different sizes is challenged individually on the membrane and the percentage of a particular size retained on the surface rates it for that size. It could be anywhere from 60 to 98 for a given size rating by the manufacturer. The variability of pore sizes is also polymer dependent. The pore sizes are irregular in membranes manufactured by solvent casting. The pore size is averaged to give a mean pore size assuming all pores are circular. The importance of this point is that the efficiency of the filter should be measured above this point. In actual practice, pore size is used only as a guide retained particle size data are closer to reality in the filtration process. Most filter manufacturers give particle size retained data traceable to standards from the National Institute of Standards and Testing. In membranes manufactured by neutron bombardment, the pores are circular and same-size pores are randomly distributed along the surface...

Water Conservation

There is a delicate balance between water conservation and sanitation, with no straightforward or simple formula for the least water use. Each process must be evaluated with the equipment used to arrive at a satisfactory procedure for water use, chlorination, and other factors, such as detergents.

288 192 751

Raw wool scouring is the highest-polluting operation within the textile industry (Table 3.20). The large volumes of effluent and high levels of contaminants generated by this operation have made it an area of the industry of key concern, and much work has been carried out in this area towards abatement of pollution from this process (BTTG, 1992 Nolan, 1972 OECD, 1981). The pollution load results from impurities present in the raw wool, (wax. urine, faeces, vegetable and mineral dirt, and parasite-control chemicals) together with soap, detergent and alkali used during the scouring and washing processes. The use of some of the more onerous organochlorine chemicals in sheep dipping has been restricted by legislation in recent years, but there remain chemicals such as organophosphates that are still used and so arise in raw wool scouring effluents (Shaw, 1994a,b). Due to their non-biodegradability or toxicity, many impurities in scouring effluents (Table 3.23), such as antistatic agents...

51 Introduction

In many practical applications, we need to know the force required to move a solid object through a surrounding fluid, or conversely, the force that a moving fluid exerts on a solid as the fluid flows past it. Many processes for the separations of particles of various sizes, shapes and materials depend on their behaviour when subjected to the action of a moving fluid. Frequently, the liquid phase may exhibit complex non-Newtonian behaviour whose characteristics may be measured using falling-ball viscometry. Furthermore, it is often necessary to calculate the fluid dynamic drag on solid particles in process equipment, for example for slurry pipelines, fixed and fluidised beds. Similarly, in the degassing of polymer melts prior to processing, bubbles rise through a still mass of molten polymer. Likewise, the movement of oil droplets and polymer solutions in narrow pores (albeit strongly influenced by capillary forces) occurs in enhanced oil recovery operations. The settling behaviour of...

1812Oil additives

Detergents Dispersants serve a purpose similar to that of detergents, but operate in a different way. Their molecules too have polar heads and oleofilic tails, Fig. 17.17 the heads latch on to particles of solid contamination (not on to the metal surfaces, as in Fig. 17.17) and the tails hold them in solution. This prevents agglomeration and holds the sludge in suspension so that it can be removed by filtration. Such additives are especially valuable in lubricants for low temperature stop-start operation and also for diesel engines running at high temperatures in vehicles operating on motorways.

171 Introduction

PCB, pesticides, antibiotics, detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, kraftmill effluents, dyestuffs recovery and purification of steroids, amino acids and polypeptides separation of fatty acids from water and toluene separation of aromatics from aliphatics separation of hydroquinone from monomers recovery of proteins and enzymes removal of colours from syrups removal of organics from hydrogen peroxide.


The structures of alkylamines with an aromatic ring in the side chain are shown in Figure 1. The phenylethylamine group comprises a range of natural and synthetic compounds, some of which are used in drug formulations, and includes catecholamines and other biogenic amines which are excreted in the urine. The separation of these compounds by TLC and over-pressured-layer chromatography (OPLC) is very important as shown by the numerous studies dealing with the determination of phenylethylamines in pharmaceutical preparations, with their identification as drugs of abuse and with the determination of cate-cholamines, their metabolites and their precursors in urine. These studies are carried out on silica gel, cellulose thin layers or using reversed-phase chromato graphy on different ready-for-use plates of silanized silica gel untreated and impregnated with anionic and cationic detergents.

Direct Mud Rotary

Direct mud-rotary drilling is a drilling method in which a fluid is forced down the drill stem, out through the bit, and back up the borehole to remove the cuttings as shown in Figure 9.15.2. The cuttings are removed by settling in a sedimentation tank or pond, and the fluid is circulated back down the drill stem. The drilling fluid can be a liquid, such water or mud (water with special additives, e.g., bentonite and polymers), or it can be gas, such as air or foam (air with additives, e.g., detergents) (Davis, Jehn, and Smith 1991).


Alkaline detergents act be penetrating the contaminant layer and removing it by emulsification, saponification, or flocculation. Appropriate commercial salts are available in powder or crystal form, which are dissolved in water at a concentration of from 1 to 10 , according to the instructions. Alkaline cleaning solutions may be made more effective by employing electrolysis at the same time, but this is not commonly practiced.


Coating is desired in some cases, as in the manufacture of pigments, dyes, minerals, candy, and other food products and in the preparation of feeds. In certain of these cases, small amounts of liquid may be added, but the end product is a solids mixture. Sometimes agglomerates are desired, as in the preparation of food products, pharmaceuticals, detergents, and fertilizer. Often size reduction is desired while solids are being mixed. In all cases, the mixing of solids occurs. However, in some of these operations, the details of the equipment to accomplish operations other than pure blending may become a major problem. This portion of Sec. 19 will deal with equipment whose major function is to give a thorough mixture of solids. Specialized equipment to perform the other functions is discussed in other sections of the Handbook and will not be dealt with here. Thus, for example, Sec. 8 is devoted to size reduction and enlargement, although equipment mentioned there may also accomplish...

Sludge Processing

Objectives Sludges consist primarily of the solids removed from liquid wastes during their processing. Thus, sludges could contain a wide variety of pollutants and residuals from the application of treatment chemicals i.e., large organic solids, colloidal organic solids, metal sulfides, heavy-metal hydroxides and carbonates, heavy-metal organic complexes, calcium and magnesium hydroxides, calcium carbonate, precipitated soaps and detergents, and biomass and precipitated phosphates. As sludge even after extensive concentration and dewatering is still greater than 50 percent by weight water, it can also contain soluble pollutants such as ammonia, priority pollutants, and nonbiologically degradable COD.

Healthy Chemistry For Optimal Health

Healthy Chemistry For Optimal Health

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