Contents

Contributors xi

Acknowledgments xiii

Preface xv

1 Structure and Bonding in Carbon Materials 1

Brian McEnaney

1 Introduction 1

2 Crystalline Forms of Carbon 3

3 The Phase and Transition Diagram for Carbon 12

4 Carbon Films 14

5 Carbon Nanoparticles 18

6 Engineering Carbons 20

7 Concluding Remarks 28

8 Acknowledgments 29

9 References 29

2 Fullerenes and Nanotubes 35

Mildred S. Dresselhaus, Peter C. Etdund and Gene Dresselhaus

1 Introduction 35

2 Fullerenes and Fullerene-based Solids 37

3 Carbon Nanotubes 61

4 Applications 84

5 Acknowledgments 87

6 References 87

3 Active Carbon Fibers 95

Timothy J. Mays

1 Introduction 95

2 Background 96

3 Applications of Active Carbon Fibers 101

4 Concluding Remarks 110

5 Acknowledgments Ill

6 References Ill

4 High Performance Carbon Fibers 119

Dan D. Edie and John J. McHugh

1 Introduction 119

2 Processing Carbon Fibers from Polyacrylonitrile 119

3 Carbon Fibers from Mesophase Pitch 123

4 High Performance Carbon Fibers from Novel Precursors 133

5 Carbon Fiber Property Comparison 133

6 Current Areas for High Performance Carbon Fiber Research 134

7 Summary and Conclusions 135

8 References 135

5 Vapor Grown Carbon Fiber Composites 139

Max L. Lake and Jyh-Ming Ting

1 Introduction 139

2 Current Forms 142

3 Fiber Properties 144

4 Composite Properties 146

5 Potential Applications 158

6 Manufacturing Issues 160

7 Conclusions 164

8 References 165

6 Porous Carbon Fiber-Carbon Binder Composites 169

Timothy D. Burchell

1 Introduction 169

2 Manufacture 169

3 Carbon Bonded Carbon Fiber 173

4 Damage Tolerant Light Absorbing Materials 181

5 Carbon Fiber Composite Molecular Sieves 183

6 Summary and Conclusions 200

7 Acknowledgments 201

8 References 201

7 Coal-Derived Carbons 205

Peter G. Stans berry, John W. Zondlo and Alfred H. Stiller

1 Review of Coal Derived Carbons 205

2 Solvent Extraction of Coal 211

3 Preparation and Characteristics of Cokes Produced from Solvent Extraction 223

4 Preparation and Evaluation of Graphite from Coal-Derived Feedstocks 229

5 Summary 233

6 Acknowledgments 233

7 References 233

8 Activated Carbon for Automotive Applications 235

Philip J. Johnson, David J. Setsuda and Roger S. Williams

1 Background 235

2 Activated Carbon 239

3 Vehicle Fuel Vapor Systems 244

4 Adsorption 246

5 Carbon Canister Design 252

6 Application of Canisters in Running Loss Emission Control 257

7 Application of Canisters in ORVR Control 263

8 Summary and Conclusions 265

9 References 266

9 Adsorbent Storage for Natural Gas Vehicles 269

Terry L. Cook, Costa Komodromos, David F. Quinn and Steve Ragan

1 Introduction 269

2 Storage of Natural Gas 274

3 Adsorbents 28C

4 Adsorbent Fill-Empty Testing 293

5 Guard Beds 294

6 Summary 298

7 References 299

10 Adsorption Refrigerators and Heat Pumps 303

Robert E. Critoph

1 Why Adsorption Cycles? 303

2 The Basic Adsorption Cycle 306

3 Basic Cycle Analysis and Results 313

4 Choice of Refrigerant - Adsorbent Pairs 319

5 Improving Cost Effectiveness 322

6 Summary and Conclusions 339

7 References 339

11 Applications of Carbon in Lithium-Ion Batteries 341

Tao Zheng and Jeff Dahn

1. Introduction 341

2. Useful Characterization Methods 347

3. Graphitic Carbons 353

4. Hydrogen-Containing Carbons from Pyrolyzed Organic Precursors 358

5. Microporous Carbons from Pyrolyzed Hard-Carbon Precursors . .. 375

6. Carbons Used in Commercial Applications 384

7. References 385

12 Fusion Energy Applications 389

Lance L. Snead

1. Introduction 389

2. The Advantages of Carbon as a Plasma-Facing Component 394

3. Irradiation Effects on Thermophysical Properties of Graphite and Carbon Fiber Composites 400

4. Plasma Wall Interactions 412

5. Tritium Retention in Graphite 420

6. Summary and Conclusions 424

7. Acknowledgments 424

8. References 425

13 Fission Reactor Applications of Carbon 429

1. The Role of Carbon Materials in Fission Reactors 429

2. Graphite Moderated Power Producing Reactors 438

5. Other Applications of Carbon in Fission Reactors 473

2. Studies and Models of Fracture Processes in Graphite 486

3. Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics Behavior of Graphite 491

4. Elastic-plastic Fracture Mechanics Behavior of Graphite 497

5. Fracture Behavior of Small Flaws in Nuclear Graphites 503

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