7 Concluding Remarks

The majority of engineering carbon materials have more-or-less disordered microstructures that are based on that of graphite and in which, therefore, sp2 carbon bonding is dominant. Hie degree of graphitic order varies widely from very low values for glassy carbons derived from polymer resins [113] to highly graphitic microstructures, e.g., in HOPG [14]. Engineering carbons are also manufactured in an astounding range of physical forms: powders, granules, beads, films, foams, fibers, textiles, composites, and monoliths, and in sizes that range from sub-micron carbon aerogels to arc furnace electrodes with dimensions of several metres. The steady development of graphitic carbon materials over many years has been complemented by recent developments in amorphous carbon films with mixed sp2 and sp3 bonding and, especially rapid developments in CVD diamond films with sp3 carbon bonds. However, the discoveries of Fullerenes and related materials represent the most exciting new developments in carbon science. Indeed, these discoveries have resulted in a paradigm shift in our perception of chemical bonding and microstructure in carbon materials and have helped to stimulate further advances in various areas of carbon science and technology that arc discussed elsewhere in this book.

I thank Marcel Dekker Inc. for permission to reprint Figures 10 and 16.

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