Four Ball Wear At 10kq And 30

TCP AT 370 C UOUD LUBE AT 79 C ■ maM mm 1« rsm iow ezzaa» 11—i uto

Lubricants

Figure 9

Lubricants

Figure 9

cants tested at the same load with 10 ml of liquid at 75°C. These data show that the optimum TCP vapor concentration gives less wear at 375°C than a fully flooded 75°C test with an SF-CD automotive lubricant. The low concentration TCP vapor phase run gives wear comparable to a good industrial EP lubricant. The last liquid lubricant in the comparison is a typical 30 weight oil with rust and oxidation protection. These data show clearly that the vapor deposited films from TCP vapor at 375°C are indeed good lubricating materials.

Conclusions

Conventional engine lubrication today uses recirculating liquid lubricated systems. As the temperature increases, these systems produce excessive deposits. The use of state-of-the-art solid lubricants without a continuous replenishing system falls several orders of magnitude short of the wear coefficient now achieved in engines. Unlubricated ceramics similarly fall several orders of magnitude short of the goal of engine wear life achieved in current engines.

Many conventional lubricants form lubricating films in the range of 300 to 1600°C. To use these materials as continuously supplied lubricants, care must be taken to supply them at a low enough rate to prevent an excess of deposit build up in the vicinity of the bearing. The possibility of three-body wear is suggested from the formation of excess deposit.

Many lubricants appear to be stable enough and volatile enough for delivery to high-temperature bearings in inert carrier gases. Many of these lubricants can also be carried effectively with gases containing some oxygen. When the rate of deposit in the bearing area is controlled, excellent wear characteristics result from vapor-phase high-temperature lubrication.

Many lubricants can react catalytically with or on bearing surfaces. Metals show more catalytic action than some more inert materials such as quartz. It is necessary to test the actual lubricant-carrier gas-bearing material couple to determine the chemistry that will occur at high temperatures.

Acknowledgment

The author wishes to acknowledge the Department of Energy, Energy Conservation and Utilization Technologies for the financial support of some of the research reported on in this paper.

Bibliography

1. Sliney, H. E., "Status and New Directions for Solid Lubricant Coatings and Composite Materials," Tribology in the 80's, pp. 665-80, NASA CP2300, NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (1983).

2. Hsu, S. M., and E. E. Klaus, "Estimation of Molecular Junction Temperatures in Four-Ball Contacts by Chemical Reaction Rate Studies,"

3. Hsu, S. M., and E. E. Klaus, "Some Chemical Effects in Boundary Lubrication - Part 1: Base Oil-Metal Interaction," ASLE Trans., 22, pp. 135-145 (1979). ""

4. Klaus, E. E., and C. W. Lai, "Method of Die Casting Metals," U.S. Patent 3978908 No. 17 (1976).

5. Klaus, E. E., and C. W. Lai, "Vapor Deposited Lubricants for Extreme Conditions," ASLE Special Publication 15, "Solid and Liquid Lubricants for Extreme Environments," pp. 75-79 (1983).

6. Pinto, N. D. G., J. L. Duda, E. E. Graham, and E. E. Klaus, "In Situ Formation of Solid Lubricating Films from Conventional Mineral Oil and Ester Base Lubricants," ASLE Proceedings, 3rd International Conference on Solid Lubrication," ASLE Pub. 14, pp. 98-104 (1984).

7. Graham, E. E., and E. E. Klaus, "Lubrication from the Vapor Phase at High Temperatures," ASLE Trans., Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 229-34 (1986).

8. Pinkus, 0., and D. F. Wilcock, "Strategy for Energy Conservation Through Tribology," pp. 13-19 and 67-81, ASME, NY (1977).

9. Ting, L. L., "Lubricated Piston Rings and Cylinder Bore Wear," Wear Control Handbook," pp. 609-65 ASME (M. B. Peterson and W. 0. Winer, Editors), NY (1980).

10. Peterson, M. B., "Advancements in Tribological Materials 1937-19872002," Proceedings of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers International Conference on Tribology-Friction Lubrication and Wear - 50 years on London.

11. Perez, J. M., F. A. Kelley, E. E. Klaus, and V. Bagrodia, "Development and Use of the PSU Microoxidation Test for Diesel Engine Oils,: SAE Paper No. 872028, Toronto, Canada (November 1987).

12. Cvitkovic, E., E. E. Klaus, and F. Lockwood, "A Thin-Film Test for Measurement of the Oxidation and Evaporation of Ester-Type Lubricants," ASLE Trans. 22, pp. 395-401 (1979).

13. Klaus, E. E., P. Shah, and V. Krishnamachar, "Development and Use of the Microoxidation Test with Crankcase Oils," Proceedings of the Conference on Measurements and Standards for Recycled Oil," The National Bureau of Standards (September 1982).

14. Klaus, E. E., and B. Bhushan, "A Study of the Stability of Magnetic Tape Lubricants," Tribology and Mechanics of Magnetic Storage Systems III, pp. 24-30, ASLE, (October 1986).

15. Klaus, E. E., and B. Bhushan, "The Effects of Inhibitors and Contaminants on the Stability of Magnetic Tape Lubricants," ASLE Transactions (1988).

16. Naidu, S. K., E. E. Klaus, and J. L. Duda, "Kinetic Model for High-Temperature Oxidation of Lubricants," Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod., Vol. 25, pp. 596-603 (1986).

17. Lahijani, J., F. E. Lockwood and E. E. Klaus, "The Influence of Metals on Sludge Formation," ASLE Trans. 25,

18. Klaus, E. E., D. I. Ugwuzor, S. K. Naidu, and J. L. Duda, "Lubricant Metal Interaction Under Conditions Simulating Automotive Bearing Lubrication," Proceedings of the JSLE International Tribology Conference, pp. 859-64, Tokyo, Japan (1985).

19. Clark, D. B., E. E. Klaus and S. M. Hsu, "The role of Iron and Copper in an Oxidative Degradation of Lubricating Oils," ASLE Preprint No. 84-Am-3D-l presented Chicago, May 7-10 (1984).

20. Klaus, E. E., J. H. Jones, R. Nagarajan, T. Ertekin, J. J. Fan, C. M. Lin, A. J. Yarzumbeck and G. King, "Oxidized Petroleum Fractions as Cosurfactants and Feedstocks for the Manufacture of Sulfonates for Tertiary Recovery of Oil," SPE Paper 9006, Presented at 1980 SPE International Symposium on Oilfield and Geothermal Chemistry, Stan ford, CA (May 1980).

21. Sen, B., "Vapor Phase Oxidation of Hydrocarbons," M. S. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University (May 1986).

23. Günsel, S., "Development and Evaluation of a High Temperature Lubrication System," Ph.D. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University (August 1986).

24. Jeng, Jin-Shain, "Interaction at High Temperatures of Phosphate Esters in the Vapor Phase with Metal Surfaces," Ph.D. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University (December 1986).

22. Gunsel, S., E. E. Klaus and J. L. Duda, "High Temperature Deposition Characteristics of Mineral Oil and Synthetic Lubricant Basestocks," Preprint 87-TC-3B-3, Tribology Conference, San Antonio, TX (October 1987).

iv-io

0 0

Post a comment