Preface To The Third Edition

This edition of the handbook has been updated throughout to reflect continuing changes in design trends and improvements in design specifications. Criteria and examples are included for both allowable-stress design (ASD) and load-and-resistance-factor design (LRFD) methods, but an increased emphasis has been placed on LRFD to reflect its growing use in practice.

Numerous connection designs for building construction are presented in LRFD format in conformance with specifications of the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). A new article has been added on the design of hollow structural sections (HSS) by LRFD, based on a new separate HSS specification by AISC. Also, because of their growing use in light commercial and residential applications, a new section has been added on the design of cold-formed steel structural members, based on the specification by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). It is applicable to both ASD and LRFD.

Design criteria are now presented in separate parts for highway and railway bridges to better concentrate on those subjects. Information on highway bridges is based on specifications of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) and information on railway bridges is based on specifications of the American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association (AREMA). A very detailed example of the LRFD design of a two-span composite I-girder highway bridge has been presented in Section 11 to illustrate AASHTO criteria, and also the LRFD design of a single-span composite bridge in Section 12. An example of the LRFD design of a truss member is presented in Section 13.

This edition of the handbook regrettably marks the passing of Fred Merritt, who worked tirelessly on previous editions, and developed many other handbooks as well. His many contributions to these works are gratefully acknowledged.

Finally, the reader is cautioned that independent professional judgment must be exercised when information set forth in this handbook is applied. Anyone making use of this information assumes all liability arising from such use. Users are encouraged to use the latest edition of the referenced specifications, because they provide more complete information and are subject to frequent change.

Roger L. Brockenbrough

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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