Preface To The Second Edition

This handbook has been developed to serve as a comprehensive reference source for designers of steel structures. Included is information on materials, fabrication, erection, structural theory, and connections, as well as the many facets of designing structural-steel systems and members for buildings and bridges. The information presented applies to a wide range of structures.

The handbook should be useful to consulting engineers; architects; construction contractors; fabricators and erectors; engineers employed by federal, state, and local governments; and educators. It will also be a good reference for engineering technicians and detailers. The material has been presented in easy-to-understand form to make it useful to professionals and those with more limited experience. Numerous examples, worked out in detail, illustrate design procedures.

The thrust is to provide practical techniques for cost-effective design as well as explanations of underlying theory and criteria. Design methods and equations from leading specifications are presented for ready reference. This includes those of the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), and the American Railway Engineering Association (AREA). Both the traditional allowable-stress design (ASD) approach and the load-and-resistance-factor design (LRFD) approach are presented. Nevertheless, users of this handbook would find it helpful to have the latest edition of these specifications on hand, because they are changed annually, as well as the AISC ''Steel Construction Manual,'' ASD and LRFD.

Contributors to this book are leading experts in design, construction, materials, and structural theory. They offer know-how and techniques gleaned from vast experience. They include well-known consulting engineers, university professors, and engineers with an extensive fabrication and erection background. This blend of experiences contributes to a broad, well-rounded presentation.

The book begins with an informative section on the types of steel, their mechanical properties, and the basic behavior of steel under different conditions. Topics such as cold-work, strain-rate effects, temperature effects, fracture, and fatigue provide in-depth information. Aids are presented for estimating the relative weight and material cost of steels for various types of structural members to assist in selecting the most economical grade. A review of fundamental steel-making practices, including the now widely used continuous-casting method, is presented to give designers better knowledge of structural steels and alloys and how they are produced.

Because of their impact on total cost, a knowledge of fabrication and erection methods is a fundamental requirement for designing economical structures. Accordingly, the book presents description of various shop fabrication procedures, including cutting steel components to size, punching, drilling, and welding. Available erection equipment is reviewed, as well as specific methods used to erect bridges and buildings.

A broad treatment of structural theory follows to aid engineers in determining the forces and moments that must be accounted for in design. Basic mechanics, traditional tools for analysis of determinate and indeterminate structures, matrix methods, and other topics are discussed. Structural analysis tools are also presented for various special structures, such as arches, domes, cable systems, and orthotropic plates. This information is particularly useful in making preliminary designs and verifying computer models.

Connections have received renewed attention in current structural steel design, and improvements have been made in understanding their behavior in service and in design techniques. A comprehensive section on design of structural connections presents approved methods for all of the major types, bolted and welded. Information on materials for bolting and welding is included.

Successive sections cover design of buildings, beginning with basic design criteria and other code requirements, including minimum design dead, live, wind, seismic, and other loads. A state-of-the-art summary describes current fire-resistant construction, as well as available tools that allow engineers to design for fire protection and avoid costly tests. In addition, the book discusses the resistance of various types of structural steel to corrosion and describes corrosion-prevention methods.

A large part of the book is devoted to presentation of practical approaches to design of tension, compression, and flexural members, composite and noncomposite.

One section is devoted to selection of floor and roof systems for buildings. This involves decisions that have major impact on the economics of building construction. Alternative support systems for floors are reviewed, such as the stub-girder and staggered-truss systems. Also, framing systems for short and long-span roof systems are analyzed.

Another section is devoted to design of framing systems for lateral forces. Both traditional and newer-type bracing systems, such as eccentric bracing, are analyzed.

Over one-third of the handbook is dedicated to design of bridges. Discussions of design criteria cover loadings, fatigue, and the various facets of member design. Information is presented on use of weathering steel. Also, tips are offered on how to obtain economical designs for all types of bridges. In addition, numerous detailed calculations are presented for design of rolled-beam and plate-girder bridges, straight and curved, composite and non-composite, box girders, orthotropic plates, and continuous and simple-span systems.

Notable examples of truss and arch designs, taken from current practice, make these sections valuable references in selecting the appropriate spatial form for each site, as well as executing the design.

The concluding section describes the various types of cable-supported bridges and the cable systems and fittings available. In addition, design of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges is covered in detail.

The authors and editors are indebted to numerous sources for the information presented. Space considerations preclude listing all, but credit is given wherever feasible, especially in bibliographies throughout the book.

The reader is cautioned that independent professional judgment must be exercised when information set forth in this handbook is applied. Anyone making use of this information assumes all liability arising from such use.

Roger L. Brockenbrough Frederick S. Merritt

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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