Contents

Contributors xv Preface xvii

Section 1. Properties of Structural Steels and Effects of Steelmaking and Fabrication Roger L. Brockenbrough, P.E. 1.1

1.1. Structural Steel Shapes and Plates / 1.1

1.2. Steel-Quality Designations / 1.6

1.3. Relative Cost of Structural Steels / 1.8

1.4. Steel Sheet and Strip for Structural Applications / 1.10

1.5. Tubing for Structural Applications / 1.13

1.6. Steel Cable for Structural Applications / 1.13

1.7. Tensile Properties / 1.14

1.8. Properties in Shear / 1.16

1.10. Effect of Cold Work on Tensile Properties / 1.18

1.11. Effect of Strain Rate on Tensile Properties / 1.19

1.12. Effect of Elevated Temperatures on Tensile Properties / 1.20

1.14. Brittle Fracture / 1.23

1.15. Residual Stresses / 1.26

1.16. Lamellar Tearing / 1.28

1.17. Welded Splices in Heavy Sections / 1.28

1.19. Variations in Mechanical Properties / 1.29

1.20. Changes in Carbon Steels on Heating and Cooling / 1.30

1.21. Effects of Grain Size / 1.32

1.22. Annealing and Normalizing / 1.32

1.23. Effects of Chemistry on Steel Properties / 1.33

1.24. Steelmaking Methods / 1.35

1.25. Casting and Hot Rolling / 1.36

1.26. Effects of Punching Holes and Shearing / 1.39

1.27. Effects of Welding / 1.39

1.28. Effects of Thermal Cutting / 1.40

Section 2. Fabrication and Erection Thomas Schflaly 2.1

2.1. Shop Detail Drawings / 2.1

2.2. Cutting, Shearing, and Sawing / 2.3

2.3. Punching and Drilling / 2.4

2.8. Shop Preassembly / 2.9

2.9. Rolled Sections / 2.11

2.10. Built-Up Sections / 2.12

2.11. Cleaning and Painting / 2.15

2.12. Fabrication Tolerances / 2.16

2.13. Erection Equipment / 2.17

2.14. Erection Methods for Buildings / 2.20

2.15. Erection Procedure for Bridges / 2.23

2.16. Field Tolerances / 2.25

2.17. Safety Concerns / 2.27

Section 3. General Structural Theory Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D. 3.1

3.1. Fundamentals of Structural Theory / 3.1

Structural Mechanics—Statics

3.2. Principles of Forces / 3.2

3.4. Equations of Equilibrium / 3.6

3.5. Frictional Forces / 3.8

Structural Mechanics—Dynamics

Mechanics of Materials

3.8. Stress-Strain Diagrams / 3.13

3.9. Components of Stress and Strain / 3.14

3.10. Stress-Strain Relationships / 3.17

3.11. Principal Stresses and Maximum Shear Stress / 3.18

Basic Behavior of Structural Components

3.13. Types of Structural Members and Supports / 3.21

3.14. Axial-Force Members / 3.22

3.15. Members Subjected to Torsion / 3.24

3.16. Bending Stresses and Strains in Beams / 3.25

3.17. Shear Stresses in Beams / 3.29

3.18. Shear, Moment, and Deformation Relationships in Beams / 3.34

3.19. Shear Deflections in Beams / 3.45

3.20. Members Subjected to Combined Forces / 3.46

3.21. Unsymmetrical Bending / 3.48

Concepts of Work and Energy

3.22. Work of External Forces / 3.50

3.23. Virtual Work and Strain Energy / 3.51

3.24. Castigliano's Theorems / 3.56

3.25. Reciprocal Theorems / 3.57

Analysis of Structural Systems

3.27. Commonly Used Structural Systems / 3.60

3.28. Determinancy and Geometric Stability / 3.62

3.29. Calculation of Reactions in Statically Determinate Systems / 3.63

3.30. Forces in Statically Determinate Trusses / 3.64

3.31. Deflections of Statically Determinate Trusses / 3.66

3.32. Forces in Statically Determinate Beams and Frames / 3.68

3.33. Deformations in Beams / 3.69

3.34. Methods for Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Systems / 3.73

3.35. Force Method (Method of Consistent Deflections) / 3.74

3.36. Displacement Methods / 3.76

3.37. Slope-Deflection Method / 3.78

3.38. Moment-Distribution Method / 3.81

3.39. Matrix Stiffness Method / 3.84

3.40. Influence Lines / 3.89

Instability of Structural Components

3.41. Elastic Flexural Buckling of Columns / 3.93

3.42. Elastic Lateral Buckling of Beams / 3.96

3.43. Elastic Flexural Buckling of Frames / 3.98

3.44. Local Buckling / 3.99

Nonlinear Behavior of Structural Systems

3.45. Comparisons of Elastic and Inelastic Analyses / 3.99

3.46. General Second-Order Effects / 3.101

3.47. Approximate Amplification Factors for Second-Order Effects / 3.103

3.48. Geometric Stiffness Matrix Method for Second-Order Effects / 3.105

3.49. General Material Nonlinear Effects / 3.105

3.50. Classical Methods of Plastic Analysis / 3.109

3.51. Contemporary Methods of Inelastic Analysis / 3.114

Transient Loading

3.52. General Concepts of Structural Dynamics / 3.114

3.53. Vibration of Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems / 3.116

3.54. Material Effects of Dynamic Loads / 3.118

3.55. Repeated Loads / 3.118

Section 4. Analysis of Special Structures Louis F. Geschwindner, P.E. 4.1

4.1. Three-Hinged Arches / 4.1

4.7. Ribbed and Hooped Domes / 4.19

4.8. Schwedler Domes / 4.22

4.9. Simple Suspension Cables / 4.23

4.10. Cable Suspension Systems / 4.29

4.11. Plane-Grid Frameworks / 4.34

4.13. Orthotopic Plates / 4.48

Section 5. Connections William A. Thornton, P.E., and T. Kane, P.E. 5.1

5.1. Limitations on Use of Fasteners and Welds / 5.1

5.2. Bolts in Combination with Welds / 5.2

Fasteners

5.3. High-Strength Bolts, Nuts, and Washers / 5.2

5.4. Carbon-Steel or Unfinished (Machine) Bolts / 5.5

General Criteria for Bolted Connections

5.7. Fastener Diameters / 5.10

5.9. Minimum Number of Fasteners / 5.12

5.10. Clearances for Fasteners / 5.13

5.11. Fastener Spacing / 5.13

5.12. Edge Distance of Fasteners / 5.14

5.14. Installation of Fasteners / 5.17

Welds

5.15. Welding Materials / 5.20

5.17. Standard Welding Symbols / 5.25

5.18. Welding Positions / 5.30

General Criteria for Welded Connections

5.19. Limitations on Fillet-Weld Dimensions / 5.31

5.20. Limitations on Plug and Slot Weld Dimensions / 5.33

5.21. Welding Procedures / 5.33

5.23. Welding Clearance and Space / 5.38

Design of Connections

5.24. Minimum Connections / 5.39

5.25. Hanger Connections / 5.39

5.26. Tension Splices / 5.47

5.27. Compression Splices / 5.50

5.28. Column Base Plates / 5.54

5.29. Beam Bearing Plates / 5.60

5.31. Bracket Connections / 5.67

5.32. Connections for Simple Beams / 5.77

5.33. Moment Connections / 5.86

5.34. Beams Seated Atop Supports / 5.95

5.35. Truss Connections / 5.96

5.36. Connections for Bracing / 5.98

5.37. Crane-Girder Connections / 5.107

Section 6. Building Design Criteria R. A. LaBoube, P.E. 6.1

6.2. Approval of Special Construction / 6.2

6.3. Standard Specifications / 6.2

6.4. Building Occupancy Loads / 6.2

6.9. Crane-Runway Loads / 6.26

6.10. Restraint Loads / 6.28

6.11. Combined Loads / 6.28

6.12. ASD and LRFD Specifications / 6.29

6.15. Combined Tension and Shear / 6.40

6.16. Compression / 6.41

6.17. Bending Strength / 6.45

6.19. Combined Bending and Compression / 6.48

6.20. Combined Bending and Tension / 6.50

6.21. Wind and Seismic Stresses / 6.51

6.22. Fatigue Loading / 6.51

6.23. Local Plate Buckling / 6.62

6.24. Design Parameters for Tension Members / 6.64

6.25. Design Parameters for Rolled Beams and Plate Girders / 6.64

6.26. Criteria for Composite Construction / 6.67

6.27. Serviceability / 6.74

6.28. Built-Up Compression Members / 6.76

6.29. Built-Up Tension Members / 6.77

6.30. Plastic Design / 6.78

6.31. Hollow Structural Sections / 6.79

6.32. Cable Construction / 6.85

6.33. Fire Protection / 6.85

Section 7. Design of Building Members Ali A. K. Haris, P.E. 7.1

7.2. Comparative Designs of Double-Angle Hanger / 7.3

7.3. Example—LRFD for Wide-Flange Truss Members / 7.4

7.4. Compression Members / 7.5

7.5. Example—LRFD for Steel Pipe in Axial Compression / 7.6

7.6. Comparative Designs of Wide-Flange Section with Axial Compression / 7.7

7.7. Example—LRFD for Double Angles with Axial Compression / 7.8

7.9. Comparative Designs of Single-Span Floorbeam / 7.11

7.10. Example—LRFD for Floorbeam with Unbraced Top Flange / 7.14

7.11. Example—LRFD for Floorbeam with Overhang / 7.16

7.12. Composite Beams / 7.18

7.13. LRFD for Composite Beam with Uniform Loads / 7.20

7.14. Example—LRFD for Composite Beam with Concentrated Loads and End

Moments / 7.28

7.15. Combined Axial Load and Biaxial Bending / 7.32

7.16. Example—LRFD for Wide-Flange Column in a Multistory Rigid Frame / 7.33

7.17. Base Plate Design / 7.37

7.18. Example—LRFD of Column Base Plate / 7.39

Section 8. Floor and Roof Systems Daniel A. Cuoco, P.E. 8.1

Floor Decks

8.1. Concrete Fill on Metal Deck / 8.1

8.2. Precast-Concrete Plank / 8.8

8.3. Cast-in-Place Concrete Slabs / 8.9

Roof Decks

8.5. Lightweight Precast-Concrete Roof Panels / 8.11

Floor Framing

8.10. Lightweight Steel Framing / 8.18

8.13. Staggered Trusses / 8.21

8.14. Castellated Beams / 8.21

8.16. Dead-Load Deflection / 8.25

8.17. Fire Protection / 8.25

Roof Framing

8.23. Cable Structures / 8.33

Section 9. Lateral-Force Design Charles W. Roeder, P.E. 9.1

9.1. Description of Wind Forces / 9.1

9.2. Determination of Wind Loads / 9.4

9.3. Seismic Loads in Model Codes / 9.9

9.4. Equivalent Static Forces for Seismic Design / 9.10

9.5. Dynamic Method of Seismic Load Distribution / 9.14

9.6. Structural Steel Systems for Seismic Design / 9.17

9.7. Seismic-Design Limitations on Steel Frames / 9.22

9.8. Forces in Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads / 9.33

9.9. Member and Connection Design for Lateral Loads / 9.38

Section 10. Cold-Formed Steel Design R. L. Brockenbrough, P.E. 10.1

10.1. Design Specifications and Materials / 10.1

10.2. Manufacturing Methods and Effects / 10.2

10.4. Design Methods / 10.5

10.5. Section Property Calculations / 10.7

10.6. Effective Width Concept / 10.7

10.7. Maximum Width-to-Thickness Ratios / 10.11

10.8. Effective Widths of Stiffened Elements / 10.11

10.9. Effective Widths of Unstiffened Elements / 10.14

10.10. Effective Widths of Uniformly Compressed Elements with Edge Stiffener / 10.14

10.11. Tension Members / 10.16

10.12. Flexural Members / 10.16

10.13. Concentrically Loaded Compression Members / 10.25

10.14. Combined Tensile Axial Load and Bending / 10.27

10.15. Combined Compressive Axial Load and Bending / 10.27

10.16. Cylindrical Tubular Members / 10.30

10.17. Welded Connections / 10.30

10.18. Bolted Connections / 10.34

10.19. Screw Connections / 10.37

10.20. other Limit States at Connections / 10.41

10.21. Wall Stud Assemblies / 10.41

10.22. Example of Effective Section Calculation / 10.42

10.23. Example of Bending Strength Calculation / 10.45

Section 11. Design Criteria for Bridges 11.1

Part 1. Application of Criteria for Cost-Effective Highway Bridge Design Robert L. Nickerson, P.E., and Dennis Mertz, P.E. 11.1

11.1. Standard Specifications / 11.1

11.2. Design Methods / 11.2

11.3. Primary Design Considerations / 11.2

11.4. Highway Design Loadings / 11.4

11.5. Load Combinations and Effects / 11.13

11.6. Nominal Resistance for LRFD / 11.19

11.7. Distribution of Loads through Decks / 11.20

11.8. Basic Allowable Stresses for Bridges / 11.24

11.9. Fracture Control / 11.29

11.10. Repetitive Loadings / 11.30

11.11. Detailing for Earthquakes / 11.35

11.12. Detailing for Buckling / 11.36

11.13. Criteria for Built-Up Tension Members / 11.45

11.14. Criteria for Built-Up Compression Members / 11.46

11.15. Plate Girders and Cover-Plated Rolled Beams / 11.48

11.16. Composite Construction with I Girders / 11.50

11.17. Cost-Effective Plate-Girder Designs / 11.54

11.19. Hybrid Girders / 11.60

11.20. Orthotropic-Deck Bridges / 11.61

11.21. Span Lengths and Deflections / 11.63

11.23. Detailing for Weldability / 11.67

11.24. Stringer or Girder Spacing / 11.69

11.25. Bridge Decks / 11.69

11.26. Elimination of Expansion Joints in Highway Bridges / 11.72

11.27. Bridge Steels and Corrosion Protection / 11.74

11.28. Constructability / 11.77

11.29. Inspectability / 11.77

11.30. Reference Materials / 11.78

Appendix A. Example of LRFD Design for Two-Span Continuous Composite I Girder / 11.78

Part 2. Railroad Bridge Design Harry B. Cundiff, P.E. 11.80

11.31. Standard Specifications / 11.153

11.32. Design Method / 11.153

11.33. Owner's Concerns / 11.153

11.34. Design Considerations / 11.154

11.35. Design Loadings / 11.155

11.36. Composite Steel and Concrete Spans / 11.163

11.37. Basic Allowable Stresses / 11.164

11.38. Fatigue Design / 11.168

11.39. Fracture Critical Members / 11.170

11.40. Impact Test Requirements for Structural Steel / 11.171

11.41. General Design Provisions / 11.171

11.42. Compression Members / 11.173

11.43. Stay Plates / 11.174

11.44. Members Stressed Primarily in Bending / 11.174

11.45. Other Considerations / 11.178

Section 12. Beam and Girder Bridges Alfred Hedefine, P.E.,

12.1. Characteristics of Beam Bridges / 12.1

12.2. Example—Allowable-Stress Design of Composite, Rolled-Beam Stringer Bridge /

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment